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Table 4 Prevalence (%) and means of clinical characteristics in patients with normal/mild and moderate/severe symptoms

From: Baseline characteristics and risk factors for ulcer, amputation and severe neuropathy in diabetic foot at risk: the BRAZUPA study

Variable Score of symptoms p
Normal/mild Moderate/severe
Age (years) 56.4 58.5 0.009
Sex (female/male) 56/63 44/37 0.01
BMI (kg/m2) 28.9 29.9 0.004
Ethnicity    0.024
 White 58 49.8  
 Black 16.9 19.2  
 Mixed 18.4 22.4  
 Asian 6.7 8.5  
Type of diabetes (1/2) 10.3/89.7 7.9/92.1 0.12
Diabetes duration (years) 13.9 14.4 0.3
HbA1c (%) 8.66 8.46 0.26
Smoking (yes) 25.2 25.4 0.94
Hypertension (yes) 80.1 84.1 0.063
Cardiopathy (yes) 26.4 30.9  
Dyslipidemia (yes) 71.1 75 0.15
Nephropathy (ClCr < 60 ml/min) 22.4 21.5 0.48
Retinopathy (yes) 42.3 49.1 0.024
Visual impairment (yes) 46.1 54.1 0.006
Foot at risk classification    <0.001
 Foot without risk 53.8 27.1  
 Neuropathic 19.4 41.4  
 Ischemic 11.2 5.8  
 Neuroischemic 15.5 25.7  
Previous ulceration (yes) 22.3 24.2 0.44
Previous amputation (yes) 12.6 13.3 0.7
Treatment of neuropathy (yes) 11.4 17.9 0.003
Region    <0.001
 South/Southeast 64.2 52.1  
 Northeast/Midwest 35.8 47.9