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Figure 2 | Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome

Figure 2

From: Targeting adipose tissue

Figure 2

Mechanisms of BAT activation. Schematic overview of the complex signaling network leading to activation of BAT by exogenous stimuli. Abbreviations: AC, adenylate cyclase; AKT1, protein kinase B; BA, bile acids; cAMP, cyclic adenosine monophosphate; cGMP, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, D2, deiodinase type 2; FAS, fatty acid synthase; FFA, free fatty acids; GC, guanylate cyclase; Gs, stimulatory G protein; HSL, hormone-sensitive lipase; IR, insulin receptor; IRS, insulin receptor substrate NE, norepinephrin; NO, nitric oxide; NPs, natriuretic peptides; NPRA, NP repector A; NPRC, NP clearance receptor; p38MAPK, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase; PDE, phosphodiesterase; PI3K, phosphoinositide 3 kinase; PKA, protein kinase A; PKCζ, protein kinase C ζ; PKGI, protein kinase G 1; RhoA, ras homolog gene family member A; ROCK, Rho-associated protein kinase; T4, thyroxine; T3, triiodothyronine; TG, triacylglycerol; TGR5, G-protein-coupled receptor; TR, thyroid hormone receptor; UCP1, uncoupling protein 1; β3AR, β3-adrenoceptor.

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