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Table 2 Determining the odds ratio with the confidence interval of association between Helicobacter pylori infection and metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in case–control studies based on variables of detection methods of infection, study populations, age, body mass index, and the continents of the world

From: Association of Helicobacter pylori infection with the risk of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis

Subgroup Number of studies Summery odds ratio (95% CI) Between studies Between subgroups
I2 P heterogeneity Q Q P heterogeneity
Metabolic Syndrome Method of bacteria detection
Anti- H. pylori antibody 5 1.26 (1.01–1.70) 0.0% 0.852 1.38 0.19 0.910
 Rapid urease test 1 1.26 (0.53–3.00)   
 C urea breath test (UBT) 5 1.17 (0.02–1.35) 0.0% 0.830 1.49   
BMI       0.13 0.71
 < = 24 3 1.25 (0.92–1.69) 0.0% 0.731 0.62   
 > 24 5 1.36 (1.01–2.00) 0.0% 0.977 1.63   
Age        0.56
 < = 45 5 1.16 (1.00–1.35) 0.0% 0.771 1.78 0.32 0.32
 > 45 6 1.26 (1.00–1.89) 0.0% 0.964 0.96   
Insulin Resistance Method of bacteria detection
Anti- H. pylori antibody 7 1.63 (1.25–2.12) 0.0% 0.990 2.71 0.44 0.661
 Rapid urease test (RUT) & Histology 3 1.33 (0.56–3.16) 67.1% 0.043 6.64   
Type of diabetes
 Diabetes dellitus 5 1.19 (1.00–1.78) 0.0% 0.890 4.37 3.33 0.192
 Gestational diabetes 1 2.80 (0.39–19.92)   
 NIDDM 4 1.80 (1.34–2.42) 0.0% 0.510 2.33   
Population
 Male 4 1.19 (1.00–1.78) 0.0% 0.990 0.08 0.23 0.89
 Female 4 2.80 (0.39–19.92) 0.0% 0.940 0.38   
 Both 7 1.80 (1.34–2.42) 44.1% 0.152 9.36   
Continent
 Asia 5 1.67 (1.23–2.26) 0.0% 0.764 1.85 1.72 0.63
 America 7 1.47 (0.89–2.44) 0.0% 0.930 0.58   
 Africa 2 1.00 (0.26–3.77) 47.6% 0.173 1.91   
 Europe 1 2.35 (1.16–4.73)
BMI
 < = 29 5 1.04 (0.60–1.79) 12.2% 0.488 3.46 0.84 0.36
 > 29 7 1.47 (0.89–2.44) 0.0% 0.662 0.55   
Age
 <= 45 8 1.09 (0.70–1.70) 2.5% 0.770 4.05 0.99 0.77
 > 45 7 1.77 (1.35–2.33) 0.0% 0.872 2.40   
  1. OR: odds Ratio, I2: I Square, Q: Q Cochrane Test, CI: confidence interval, BMI: body mass index