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Table 2 Demographic data of the SARS-CoV-2 patients with diabetic ketoacidosis, stratified by treatment outcome (n = 68 studies), 2019–2021

From: Diabetic ketoacidosis in patients with SARS-CoV-2: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Variable Findingsb
  All (n = 243) Survived (n = 180) Died (n = 63) p-valuec
Age (years)
  < 60 95 (39.1) 80 (44.4) 15 (23.8) 0.021*
  ≥ 60 35 (14.4) 17 (9.4) 18 (28.6)  
Gender
 Female 95 (39.1) 80 (44.4) 15 (23.8) 0.015*
 Male 134 (55.1) 90 (50) 44 (69.8)  
BMI (kg/m2)
  < 30 44 (18.1) 32 (17.8) 12 (19) 0.338
  ≥ 30 27 (11.1) 17 (9.4) 10 (15.9)  
Ethnicity
 Arab 10 (4.1) 7 (3.9) 3 (4.8) 0.001*
 Asian 13 (5.3) 8 (4.4) 5 (7.9)  
 Blacka 45 (18.5) 42 (23.3) 3 (4.8)  
 Hispanic 53 (21.8) 36 (20) 17 (27)  
 Indian 14 (5.8) 13 (7.2) 1 (1.6)  
 Bengali 2 (0.8) 1 (0.5) 1 (1.6)  
 Persian 2 (0.8) 2 (1) 0  
 White (Caucasian) 27 (11.1) 24 (13.3) 3 (4.8)  
 Diabetes type     
 Newly diagnosed 61 (25.1) 55 (30.5) 6 (9.5) 0.000*
 Pre-existing type 1 diabetes mellitus 60 (24.7) 55 (30.5) 5 (7.9)  
 Pre-existing type 2 diabetes mellitus 60 (24.7) 42 (23.3) 24 (38.1)  
Use of SGLT2 inhibitors
 Yes 8 (3.3) 6 (3.3) 2 (3.2) 0.000*
 No 185 (76.1) 149 (82.8) 36 (57.1)  
Blood glucose
  < 500 mg/dl 45 (18.5) 38 (21.1) 7 (11.1) 0.048*
 Between 500–1000 mg/dl 61 (25.1) 44 (24.4) 17 (27)  
  > 1000 mg/dl 13 (5.3) 6 (3.3) 7 (11.1)  
HbA1c (%)
  < 10 24 (9.9) 17 (9.4) 6 (9.5) 0.096
  ≥ 10 69 (28.4) 57 (31.7) 12 (19)  
pH
  > 7.35 8 (3.3) 7 (3.9) 1 (1.6) 0.047*
 Between 7–7.34 78 (32.1) 58 (32.2) 20 (31.7)  
  < 7 29 (11.9) 18 (10) 11 (17.5)  
Bicarbonate (mmol/l)
 Above 20 3 (1.2) 2 (1.1) 1 (1.6) 0.818
 Between 12–20 40 (16.5) 29 (16.1) 11 (17.5)  
 Between 2–11 69 (28.4) 54 (30) 15 (23.8)  
Anion gap (mEq/l)
 Between 12–20 26 (10.7) 22 (12.2) 4 (6.3) 0.327
 Between 21–30 39 (16) 29 (16.1) 10 (15.9)  
 Between 31–50 20 (8.2) 12 (6.7) 8 (12.7)  
  1. SARS-CoV-2 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, SGLT2 Sodium-glucose Cotransporter-2, BMI body mass index
  2. aPatients with black ethnicity include African-American, Black African, African and Afro-Caribbean patients
  3. bData are presented as number (%)
  4. cChi-square (χ2) test was used to compare between survival and death groups