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Table 2 Results of multivariate GLM analysis showing the associations between biomarkers and diagnosis of prediabetes while adjusting for background variables

From: The immune-opioid axis in prediabetes: predicting prediabetes with insulin resistance by plasma interleukin-10 and endomorphin-2 to kappa-opioid receptors ratio

Type Dependent variable Explanatory variable F df p Partial η2
Multivariate IL-10,
zLn βEP,
zLn (βEP/MOR), zLn IL-6, zLnMOR, zLnEM2, zLnKOR,
zLn (EM2/KOR)
Diagnosis 2.203 16/212 0.045 0.192
Sex 0.450 8/156 0.867 0.046
Age 1.138 8/156 0.351 0.109
BMI 1.803 8/156 0.102 0.163
Smoking 0.604 8/156 0.750 0.061
Physical activity 0.798 8/156 0.612 0.084
HbA1c 1.076 8/156 0.389 0.104
Glucose 0.801 8/156 0.590 0.079
Insulin 0.851 8/156 0.550 0.084
I/G 0.968 8/156 0.462 0.094
HOMA2%S 0.495 8/156 0.835 0.051
HOMA2IR 0.841 8/156 0.558 0.083
zLnHOMA2%B 1.177 8/156 0.328 0.112
Dyslipidemia 0.020 8/156 0.966 0.001
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects Diagnosis IL-10 2.102 2/163 0.152 0.029
Diagnosis zLnβEP 5.128 2/163 0.027 0.067
Diagnosis zLn(βEP/MOR) 0.884 2/163 0.350 0.012
Diagnosis zLn IL-6 0.202 2/163 0.654 0.003
Diagnosis zLnMOR 1.131 2/163 0.291 0.016
Diagnosis zLnEM2 0.003 2/163 0.957 0.001
Diagnosis zLnKOR 3.745 2/163 0.057 0.050
Diagnosis zLn (EM2/KOR) 2.213 2/163 0.141 0.030
  1. zLn: z-score of the natural logarithm; FPG: fasting plasma glucose; IL: interleukin; KOR: κ-opioid receptor; MOR: µopioid receptor; EM2: Endomorphin-2; βEP: β-endorphin