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Table 1 Demographic and clinical data of healthy controls (HC) and Prediabetes-IR versus Prediabetes+IR groups

From: The immune-opioid axis in prediabetes: predicting prediabetes with insulin resistance by plasma interleukin-10 and endomorphin-2 to kappa-opioid receptors ratio

Parameter ControlA
N = 58
Prediabetes-IRB
N = 60
Prediabetes + IRC
N = 60
F/χ2 df p
Sex (F/M) 28/30 28/32 27/33 0.364 2 0.552
Age year 36.67 ± 10.03 35.03 ± 11.44 37.9 ± 11.88 0.499 2/175 0.609
BMI kg/m2 26.39 ± 3.72 27.76 ± 4.01 27.63 ± 5.14 0.909 2/175 0.407
Smoking (Y/N) 17/41 18/42 19/41 0.321 2 0.714
Marital status (M/S) 33/25 31/29 36/24 1.308 2 0.067
Physical activity (Y/N) 21/37 20/40 18/42 1.412 2 0.056
TC mM 4.07 ± 0.59C 4.42 ± 0.56 4.72 ± 0.70A 8.288 2/175 0.001
TG mM 1.40 ± 0.14C 1.49 ± 0.17 1.57 ± 0.36A 3.701 2/175 0.029
VLDLc mM 0.64 ± 0.07 C 0.68 ± 0.08 0.72 ± 0.16A 3.701 2/175 0.029
HDLc mM 1.12 ± 0.11C 1.06 ± 0.14 0.99 ± 0.13A 6.789 2/175 0.002
LDLc mM 2.32 ± 0.60C 2.69 ± 0.58 3.01 ± 0.74A 8.725 2/175 < 0.001
TC/HDLc 3.69 ± 0.64B,C 4.27 ± 0.81A,C 4.81 ± 0.80A,B 16.512 2/175 < 0.001
TG/HDLc 1.27 ± 0.19C 1.44 ± 0.26 1.61 ± 0.42A 9.298 2/175 < 0.001
LDLc/HDLc 2.11 ± 0.60B,C 2.61 ± 0.75A,C 3.07 ± 0.81A,B 13.214 2/175 < 0.001
zLn IL-6 − 0.35 ± 1.15B,C 0.16 ± 0.90A 0.19 ± 0.86A 4.562 2/175 0.019
IL-10 pg/ml 7.9 ± 2.27B,C 11.46 ± 4.52A,C 14.08 ± 8.19A,B 9.362 2/175 < 0.001
zLn βEP − 0.50 ± 0.39B,C 0.37 ± 1.39 A 0.13 ± 076A 6.834 2/175 0.002
zLn MOR − 0.34 ± 1.15B,C 0.19 ± 0.96A 0.15 ± 0.81A 4.087 2/175 0.024
zLn (βEP/MOR) − 0.09 ± 1.11 0.10 ± 1.02 0.01 ± 0.87 0.279 2/175 0.757
zLn EM2 − 0.50 ± 0.89B,C 0.16 ± 0.98A 0.34 ± 0.964A 6.615 2/175 0.002
zLn KOR − 0.35 ± 1.20B,C − 0.21 ± 1.14A 0.14 ± 0.64A 3.964 2/175 0.031
zLn (EM2/KOR) − 0.15 ± 1.14 − 0.038 ± 0.94 0.19 ± 0.90 0.888 2/175 0.415
HbA1c % 5.01 ± 0.43B,C 6.02 ± 0.2A 6.17 ± 0.2A 132.746 2/175 < 0.001
Glucose mM 5 ± 0.71B,C 5.92 ± 0.59A,C 6.49 ± 0.39A,B 49.734 2/175  < 0.001
Insulin pM 68.54 ± 10.79B,C 100.74 ± 13.64A,C 140.48 ± 12.38A,B 256.628 2/175  < 0.001
I/G mM 14.07 ± 3.40B,C 17.12 ± 2.46A,C 21.79 ± 2.84A,B 52.921 2/175  < 0.001
zLnHOMA2%B 0.13 ± 1.39 0.18 ± 0.84 0.05 ± 0.63 0.764 2/175 0.469
HOMA2%S 80.72 ± 13.82B,C 52.63 ± 7.51A,C 36.85 ± 2.80A,B 174.254 2/175  < 0.001
HOMA2IR 1.27 ± 0.19B,C 1.94 ± 0.27A,C 2.73 ± 0.22A,B 303.865 2/175  < 0.001
  1. A,B,C Pairwise comparisons between group means
  2. zLn: z-score of the natural logarithm; FPG: fasting plasma glucose; TC: serum total cholesterol; TG: serum triglycerides; VLDLc: very-low-density lipoproteins; HDLc: high-density lipoproteins; LDLc: Low-density lipoproteins; IL: interleukin; KOR: κ-opioid receptor; MOR: µopioid receptor; EM2: Endomorphin-2; βEP: β-endorphin; BMI: Body mass index; HOMA2IR: homeostasis model assessment 2 of insulin resistance; HOMA2%S: homeostasis model assessment 2 of insulin sensitivity percentage; HOMA2%B: homeostasis model assessment 2 of beta-cell function percentage; IR: insulin resistance (HOMA2IR > 2.5)