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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the study participants according to the quartiles of serum ADA levels

From: Inverse relationship between serum adenosine deaminase levels and islet beta cell function in patients with type 2 diabetes

Variables Total Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 p value
ADA(U/L) 13.6 (11.1–16.9) 9.5 (8.5–10.3) 12.4 (12.4–13.1) 15.0 (14.3–16.0) 19.7 (18.1–21.7)  < 0.001
n 1573 396 399 388 390
Age (year) 58.17 ± 13.12 53.79 ± 11.98 56.74 ± 12.78 59.12 ± 12.94 63.13 ± 13.01  < 0.001
Female (F/M) 683/890 125/271 176/223 182/206 200/190  < 0.001
Diabetes duration (months) 78.64 ± 74.45 63.5 76.56 ± 71.82 81.01 ± 74.15 93.80 ± 85.09  < 0.001
Glucose-lowering therapies
 Lifestyle alone, n (%) 105 35 (33.3) 22 (21.0) 35 (24.7) 13 (12.4) 0.003
 Insulin treatments, n (%) 805 158 (19.6) 203 (25.2) 203 (25.2) 241 (29.9)  < 0.001
 Insulin-secretagogues, n (%) 822 199 (24.2) 219 (26.6) 191 (23.2) 213 (25.9) 0.257
 Metformin, n (%) 904 236 (26.1) 233 (25.8) 215 (23.8) 220 (24.3) 0.632
 Pioglitazone, n (%) 571 137 (24.0) 148 (25.9) 133 (23.3) 153 (26.8) 0.433
 Glucosidase inhibitors, n (%) 388 66 (17.0) 91 (23.5) 103 (26.5) 128 (33.0)  < 0.001
 DPP-4Is, n (%) 433 93 (21.5) 118 (27.3) 103 (23.8) 119 (27.5) 0.111
Statin medication, n (%) 567 128 (22.6) 161 (28.4) 140 (24.7) 138 (24.3) 0.129
Hypertension, n (%) 804 (51.1) 177 (44.7) 205 (51.4) 198 (51.0) 224 (57.4) 0.005
BMI (kg/m2) 25.75 ± 3.58 25.51 ± 3.47 25.82 ± 3.49 25.85 ± 3.76 25.82 ± 3.62 0.518
SBP (mmHg) 137.20 ± 18.02 134.86 ± 17.80 137.36 ± 17.75 137.78 ± 17.49 138.85 ± 18.86 0.016
DBP (mmHg) 79.81 ± 10.89 80.24 ± 10.51 80.09 ± 10.48 79.93 ± 11.24 78.96 ± 11.31 0.349
ALT (U/L) 18 (13–28) 17 (12–26) 19 (13–28) 19 (14–30) 19 (13–29) 0.023
AST (U/L) 17 (14–22) 15 (13–20) 16 (14–21) 17 (14–23) 18 (15–25)  < 0.001
TG (mmol/L) 1.83 (1.18–2.92) 1.75 (1.11–2.83) 1.99 (1.27–3.15) 1.75 (1.18–2.86) 1.83 (1.21–2.84) 0.138
TC (mmol/L) 4.51 ± 1.36 4.41 ± 1.06 4.59 ± 0.98 4.56 ± 1.44 4.50 ± 1.14 0.172
HDLC (mmol/L) 1.04 ± 0.27 1.05 ± 0.28 1.04 ± 0.25 1.04 ± 0.28 1.03 ± 0.28 0.757
LDLC (mmol/L) 2.57 ± 0.79 2.52 ± 0.82 2.64 ± 0.78 2.57 ± 0.76 2.54 ± 0.82 0.225
HbA1c (%) 9.02 ± 4.43 8.19 ± 2.02 8.91 ± 1.92 9.06 ± 1.98 9.89 ± 2.15  < 0.001