Skip to main content

Table 1 Comparisons of patient characteristics between the TBR ≥ 1% group and TBR < 1% group

From: The association between hypoglycemia and glycemic variability in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes: a prospective observational study

  Total patients TBR ≥ 1% group TBR < 1% group P value
n 179 57 122  
Age (years) 73.0 (68.0, 78.0) 74.0 (70.0, 79.0) 72.0 (68.0, 78.0) 0.0833
Females (%) 71 (39.7) 23 (40.4) 48 (39.3) 1.0000
BMI (kg/m2) 24.2 (22.0, 26.8) 23.6 (21.2, 25.1) 24.5 (22.1, 27.1) 0.0534
Diabetes duration (years) 16.0 (10.0, 24.0) 19.0 (12.5, 25.0) 15.0 (9.0, 24.0) 0.2620
Diabetic retinopathy 63 (35.4) 22 (38.6) 41 (33.9) 0.6148
Diabetic neuropathy 79 (49.4) 28 (51.9) 51 (48.1) 0.7386
Diabetic nephropathy 93 (52.0) 29 (50.9) 64 (52.7) 0.8735
Hypertension 134 (75.3) 43 (76.8) 91 (74.6) 0.8524
Dyslipidemia 124 (69.7) 41 (73.2) 83 (68.0) 0.5988
Hyperuricemia 32 (18.0) 10 (17.9) 22 (18.0) 1.0000
Diabetes treatment
 Any insulin (%) 74 (41.3) 36 (63.2) 38 (31.2) < 0.0001
 Sulfonylureas (%) 52 (29.1) 16 (28.1) 36 (29.5) 1.0000
 Glinides (%) 27 (15.1) 11 (19.3) 16 (13.1) 0.3697
 Metformin (%) 96 (53.6) 34 (59.7) 62 (50.8) 0.3346
 Thiazolidine (%) 13 (7.3) 4 (7.0) 9 (7.4) 1.0000
 α-Glucosidase inhibitors (%) 33 (18.4) 9 (15.8) 24 (19.7) 0.6796
 DPP-4 inhibitors (%) 135 (75.4) 42 (73.7) 93 (76.2) 0.7131
 GLP-1 receptor agonists (%) 18 (10.1) 6 (10.5) 12 (9.8) 1.0000
 SGLT2 inhibitors (%) 30 (16.8) 6 (10.5) 24 (19.7) 0.1395
 Acute coronary syndrome (%) 26 (14.5) 11 (19.3) 15 (12.3) 0.2560
 History of stroke or TIA (%) 25 (14.0) 13 (22.8) 12 (9.8) 0.0350
 FPG (mg/dL) 134.0 (116.0, 156.0) 119.0 (105.0, 135.5) 142 (123.0, 165.3) < 0.0001
 HbA1c (%) 7.1 (6.7, 7.7) 7.0 (6.6, 7.6) 7.2 (6.8, 7.8) 0.0387
 HbA1c (mmol/mol) 54.1 (49.7, 60.7) 53.0 (48.6, 59.6) 55.2 (50.8, 61.7) 0.0387
 CPI (ng/mL per mg/dL) 1.1 (0.7, 1.7) 1.0 (0.5, 1.5) 1.2 (0.9, 1.8) 0.0228
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 62.8 (48.4, 70.0) 58.0 (45.9, 68.3) 63.2 (50.6, 70.7) 0.1780
  1. Values are expressed as median (interquartile range) or number (%) of patients in each category. The Mann–Whitney U-test or Fisher’s exact test was used for comparisons of the parameters between the TBR ≥ 1% group and TBR < 1% group
  2. BMI body mass index, DPP‐4 dipeptidyl peptidase‐4, GLP‐1 glucagon‐like peptide‐1, SGLT2 sodium–glucose cotransporter 2, TIA transient ischemic attack, FPG fasting plasma glucose, CPI C-peptide index, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, TBR time below target glucose range