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Table 2 Clinical data and fetal ultrasound measurements in diabetic and control populations

From: Ultrasound evaluation of the fetal fat tissue, heart, liver and umbilical cord measurements in pregnancies complicated by gestational and type 1 diabetes mellitus: potential application in the fetal birth-weight estimation and prediction of the fetal macrosomia

  GDMG1 (n = 40) GDMG2 (n = 40) T1DM (n = 24) Control (n = 40) p value
Age (years) 32 [28–36.2] 33 [29.7–37] 33 [29–36] 30 [27.7–32] .08
Gestational age (weeks) 39 [38–39] 39 [38–39] 38 [37–38] 39 [39–40] < .001c
Gravidity 2 [1–3] 2 [1–3] 1 [1–2] 2 [1–2] .06
Parity 2 [1–2] 2 [1–2] 1 [1–2] 2 [1–2] .19
Pre-pregnancy weight (kg) 69.5 [61.5–75] 79 [63–89.7] 64 [55.7–70] 63.5 [56–70.5] < .01d
Gestational weight gain (kg) 10 [8.5–14.2] 9 [7–13] 17 [13.7–19.5] 14.5 [11.7–18] < .001d,e
Height (m) 1.65 [1.6–1.7] 1.68 [1.63–1.7] 1.64 [1.62–1.7] 1.65 [1.64–1.7] .62
Pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2) 25.8 [23–28.3] 29.4 [22.6–33.7] 22.9 [20.4–25.4] 22.6 [21.1–25.4] < .01d
< .05e
Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dl)a 90 [81.7–95] 97 [94–99] 80.5 [74–83.2] < .001f,g
1-h plasma glucose (mg/dl)a 182 [158.2–190.2] 177.5 [151.7–196.7] 119 [105.7–142.5] < .001f
2-h plasma glucose (mg/dl)a 153 [135.7–162] 136 [118–160] 102 [88.5–115.5] < .001f
3rd trimester HbA1c (%) 5.1 [5–5.4] 5.7 [5.2–6.1] 5.9 [5.7–6.4] < .001h
< .05g
Fetal sex
 Male 21 (52.5%) 16 (40.0%) 13 (54.2%) 25 (62.5%) .25
 Female 19 (47.5%) 24 (60.0%) 11 (45.8%) 15 (37.5%)  
Fetal birth-weight (g) 3425 [3237.5–3776.2] 3535 [3222.5–3748.7] 3945 [3600–4162.5] 3480 [3232.5–3832.5] < .01c,f,g
Fetal macrosomiab 7 (17.5%) 7 (17.5%) 11 (45.8%) 7 (17.5%) < .05c
BPD (cm) 9.27 [9–9.56] 9.29 [9.1–9.47] 8.9 [8.71–9.33] 9.28 [9.14–9.53] < .05c
HC (cm) 33.4 [32.8–34.4] 33.2 [32.7–34] 32.6 [31.5–33.7] 33.8 [33.1–34.3] < .05h,i
AC (cm) 34.2 [33.4–35.6] 34.8 [33.2–36] 35.4 [33.6–36.2] 34.9 [34.1–36.6] .27
FL (cm) 7.42 [7.06–7.72] 7.51 [7.29–7.71] 7.38 [7.13–7.77] 7.47 [7.25–7.7] .68
SSFM (cm) 0.55 [0.48–0.58] 0.62 [0.54–0.68] 0.66 [0.62–0.73] 0.53 [0.49–0.58] < .01c,j
AFM (cm) 0.62 [0.59–0.68] 0.71 [0.65–0.76] 0.78 [0.72–0.84] 0.62 [0.56–0.7] < .01c,j
MTFM (cm) 0.49 [0.46–0.58] 0.56 [0.47–0.65] 0.58 [0.5–0.65] 0.51 [0.45–0.56] < .05h,i,j
MTLM (cm) 1.48 [1.26–1.67] 1.54 [1.32–1.74] 1.55 [1.36–1.85] 1.5 [1.31–1.58] .45
MTFM/MTLM ratio 0.37 [0.32–0.4] 0.38 [0.34–0.41] 0.38 [0.34–0.4] 0.35 [0.31–0.38] < .05i,k
HeC (cm) 13.7 [12.8–14.2] 14 [13.6–15] 14.7 [13.8–15.3] 13.9 [13.1–14.8] < .05h
HeA (cm2) 14.5 [12.9–15.8] 15.7 [14.7–17.3] 17.2 [14.8–18.6] 14.9 [13.7–17.1] < .05h
ThC (cm) 29.5 [27.7–31.4] 30.7 [29.5–32.2] 31 [30.2–31.6] 30.8 [29.9–31.9] .07
ThA (cm2) 69 [61–78.3] 74.1 [68.6–82.3] 76.3 [72.8–78.4] 75 [70.7–80.4] .07
HeC/ThC ratio 0.47 [0.44–0.47] 0.46 [0.44–0.47] 0.47 [0.44–0.49] 0.46 [0.43–0.47] .59
HeA/ThA ratio 0.21 [0.2–0.22] 0.21 [0.19–0.22] 0.22 [0.2–0.24] 0.21 [0.19–0.22] .60
IVS (cm) 0.36 [0.33–0.39] 0.41 [0.39–0.46] 0.47 [0.43–0.49] 0.33 [0.31–0.37] < .01h,i,j
LL (cm) 5.59 [5.32–5.97] 5.77 [5.36–6.17] 6.07 [5.9–6.27] 5.59 [5.26–5.94] < .01c
UmC (cm) 5.15 [4.78–5.46] 5.4 [5.17–5.65] 5.65 [5.3–5.77] 5.33 [4.69–5.5] < .05g,h,i
UmA (cm2) 1.73 [1.55–2.05] 1.98 [1.8–2.16] 2.06 [1.93–2.24] 1.9 [1.56–2.04] < .05g,h,i
UvC (cm) 2.83 [2.58–3.05] 2.94 [2.73–3.27] 2.9 [2.77–3.3] 2.9 [2.63–3.13] .30
UvA (cm2) 0.57 [0.48–0.66] 0.62 [0.53–0.76] 0.62 [0.57–0.73] 0.59 [0.51–0.7] .24
mUaC (cm) 1.42 [1.27–1.56] 1.57 [1.43–1.74] 1.57 [1.47–1.64] 1.37 [1.21–1.57] < .01h,i,j
mUaA (cm2) 0.13 [0.11–0.16] 0.17 [0.14–0.2] 0.16 [0.15–0.19] 0.13 [0.1–0.16] < .01h,i,j
UveA (cm2) 0.86 [0.67–0.97] 0.96 [0.83–1.08] 0.97 [0.89–1.14] 0.87 [0.73–1] < .05h,i,j
WjA (cm2) 0.94 [0.76–1.06] 1.02 [0.81–1.18] 1.06 [0.97–1.27] 0.95 [0.73–1.07] < .05g,h,i
  1. Data are expressed as median [interquartile range, IQR], or as n (%). Continuous variables were compared using the Kruskal–Wallis rank sum test with the post-hoc Dunn's test, and for categorical variables the chi-square test with the Bonferroni correction or Fisher's exact test were applied
  2. GDMG1 diet-controlled gestational diabetes mellitus, GDMG2 insulin-controlled gestational diabetes mellitus, T1DM type 1 diabetes mellitus, BMI body mass index, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin concentration, BPD biparietal diameter, HC head circumference, AC abdominal circumference, FL femur length, SSFM sub-scapular fat mass, AFM abdominal fat mass, MTFM mid-thigh fat mass, MTLM mid-thigh lean mass, HeC heart circumference, HeA heart area, ThC thorax circumference, ThA thorax area, IVS inter-ventricular septum, LL liver length, UmC umbilical cord circumference, UmA umbilical cord area, UvC umbilical vein circumference, UvA umbilical vein area, mUaC mean umbilical artery circumference, mUaA mean umbilical artery area, UveA umbilical vessels area, WjA Wharton's jelly area
  3. aResults of the 75 g Oral Glucose Tolerance Test performed between 24 and 28 gestational weeks
  4. bFetal macrosomia defined as birth-weight over 4000 g irrespective of gestational age
  5. cGDMG1, GDMG2, control vs. T1DM
  6. dGDMG2 vs. T1DM, control
  7. eGDMG1 vs. T1DM, control
  8. fGDMG1, GDMG2 vs. control
  9. gGDMG1 vs. GDMG2
  10. hGDMG1 vs. T1DM
  11. iT1DM vs. control
  12. jGDMG2 vs. GDMG1, control
  13. kGDMG2 vs. control