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Table 1 General characteristics of included studies

From: Metabolic syndrome and esophageal cancer risk: a systematic review and meta‑analysis

Author (year) Country/period Study design Sample size (men/women) Mean age or age range EC assessment method Defnition of MetS OR (95% CI) Adjustment
Drahos (2016) [14] United Kingdom/1992–2012 Population based case–control study Exp: 592 (474/118)
Con: 2901 (2319/582)
Exp: 69.2 ± 11.3
Con: 68.9 ± 11.2
Medical records NCEP-ATP III 1.01 (0.65–1.56) Age, years of CPRD data prior to selection, sex
Drahos (2017) [24] United States of America/2003–2009 Population based case–control study Exp: 3167 (2481/686)
Con: 15,835 (12,405/3430)
Exp: 78.0 ± 6.5
Con: 78.0 ± 6.5
ICD-9, ICD-O NCEP-ATP III 1.16 (1.06, 1.26) Age, sex, race, registry, smoking, history of GERD
Duggan (2013) [25] United States of America/1995–2009 Hospital based prospective cohort All: 392 (321/71) All: 61.0 ± 11.5 Medical records IDF, AHA 1.14 (0.56–2.36) Age, sex, BMI, cigarette pack-years, regular NSAID use
Ko (2016) [26] South Korea/2002–2013 Population based retrospective cohort Exp: 17,989 (12,618/5371)
Con: 81,576 (49,140/32,436)
≥ 20 ICD-10 ≥ 3 metabolic abnormalities 0.51 (0.25–1.04) Age, smoking status, alcohol intake, regular exercise
Lin (2015) [27] Norway/1994–2010 Population based prospective cohort All: 192,903 (93,058/99,845) All: 49.5 ± 15.7 ICD-7, ICD-O-3 ≥ 3 metabolic abnormalities 1.19 (0.82–1.74) Age, sex, BMI, education, smoking status; family cancer history
Lindkvist (2014) [15] Austria, Norway, Sweden/1972–2005 Population based prospective cohort All: 577,259 (288,930/288,329) All: 44.0 ± 11.7 ICD, ICD-7, ICD-O-1, ICD-O-2 5 metabolic abnormalities 1.26 (1.06–1.50) Sex, age, smoking status
  1. MetS metabolic syndrome, NCEP-ATP III National Cholesterol Education Program Adults Treatment Panel III, IDF International Diabetes Federation, AHA American Heart Association, ICD International Classification of Diseases