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Table 5 Meta-analysis of association between dietary inflammatory index (DII) (as a categorical index) and cardiometabolic risk factors

From: Association of dietary inflammatory potential with cardiometabolic risk factors and diseases: a systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of observational studies

Outcome variable Number of studies Sample size Number of events Test of association Test of heterogeneity
ORa,d 95% CI Model I2% p-value
Abdominal obesity 9 18,121 4655b 1.00 0.88–1.12 Fixed 3.5 0.40
Low HDL-C 8 17,874 4148b 0.94 0.78–1.14 Random 58.1 0.01
Hyper- triglyceridemia 8 17,874 3954b 1.09 0.98–1.22 Fixed 0.0 0.73
HTN 12 77,194 13,496c 1.17 1.10–1.25 Fixed 36.4 0.12
Hyperglycemia 8 17,876 4651b 1.21 1.01–1.44 Random 54.0 0.02
MetS 11 42,978 4524b 1.13 1.03–1.25 Random 54.8 0.02
  1. HDL-C high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, HTN hypertension, MetS metabolic syndrome, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. *HR, Hazard ratio; OR, Odds ratio; Q test, Cochran test
  3. aCohort or cross-sectional study
  4. bParticipants with abdominal obesity, low-HDL-C, hyper-triglyceridemia, hyperglycemia and MetS had not been stated in three studies
  5. cParticipants with HTN had not been stated in five studies
  6. d The odds ratio is for the highest pro-inflammatory diet (the highest DII) versus the highest anti-inflammatory diet (the lowest DII)
  7. eCase–control or cross-sectional study