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Table 4 Meta-analysis of association between continuous and categorical dietary inflammatory index (DII) and risk of cardiometabolic diseases and mortality according to type of study

From: Association of dietary inflammatory potential with cardiometabolic risk factors and diseases: a systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of observational studies

Type of the DII measurement Type of outcome Type of study Number of studies Sample size Number of events Type of effect size measures Test of association Test of heterogeneity
Effect size measure 95% CI Model I2% p-value
Continuous (per one unit increment) Mortality Cohort 8 239,156 27,403 HRa 1.04 1.03–1.05 Fixed 38.7 0.12
Morbidity Cohort 4 23,183 1117 HR 1.06 1.03–1.09 Fixed 22.3 0.27
Non-cohortb 2 17,055 2494 ORa,b 1.06 1.03–1.10 Random 69.1 0.07
Categorical (highest DII/ lowest DII) Mortality Cohort 10 291,968 30,813 HR 1.29 1.18–1.41 Random 65.9  < 0.001
Morbidity Cohort 6 43,340 1310 HR 1.35 1.13–1.61 Fixed 37.0 0.16
Non-cohort b 3 23,999 3883 ORb 1.36 1.18–1.57 Fixed 0.0 0.67
  1. OR odds ratio, HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. aHR, Hazard ratio; OR, Odds ratio; Q test, Cochran test
  3. bCase–control or cross-sectional study