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Table 1 Sociodemographic and clinical data

From: Gender differences in quality of life in adults with long-standing type 1 diabetes mellitus

  Total Male Female
Number of patients (n, %) 312, 100% 161, 51.6% 151, 48.4%
Age (years) 38.2 ± 12.7 38.7 ± 12.7 37.7 ± 12.6
Education (years) 13.4 ± 4.7 13.2 ± 4.8 13.6 ± 4.7
Marital status:
 Single 103 (33%) 54 (33.5%) 49 (32.4%)
 Married 151 (48.4%) 75 (46.5%) 76 (50.3%)
 Divorced 23 (7.3%) 15 (9.4%) 8 (5.4%)
 Widowed 6 (1.9%) 2 (1.3%) 4 (2.6%)
 In a relationship 29 (9.3%) 15 (9.3%) 14 (9.3%)
Age at diagnosis (years) 17.7 ± 10.7 17.6 ± 11.1 17.7 ± 10.3
Duration of diabetes (years) 20.4 ± 12 20.7 ± 12.4 19.9 ± 11.6
HbA1c (%) 7.5 ± 1.1 7.5 ± 1.2 7.5 ± 1
Glycemic Instabilitya 9.2 ± 8.3 9.4 ± 9.3 8.4 ± 7.1
 Hypertension 77 (24.6%) 47 (29.2%) 30 (19.9%)*
 Unawareness hypoglycemic 95 (30.4%) 54 (33.5%) 41 (27.1%)
Severe hypoglycemia (last year):
 0 244 (78.2%) 127 (78.9%) 117 (77.5%)
 1 35 (11.2%) 18 (11.2%) 17 (11.25%)
 > 1 33 (10.6%) 16 (9.9%) 17 (11.25%)
Intensive insulin regimen: 312 (100%) 161 (100%) 151 (100%)
 Bolus Basal 287 (92%) 152 (94.4%) 135 (89.4%)
 CSII 23 (7.4%) 9 (5.6%) 14 (9.3%)
 Insulin regimen < 2 shots a day 2 (0.6%) 0 (0.0%) 2 (1.3%)
Microvascular complications: 192 (61.5%) 108 (67%) 84 (55.6%)
 Retinopathy 107 (34.3%) 61 (37.9%) 46 (30.5%)
 Nephropathy 62 (19.9%) 34 (21.1%) 28 (18.5%)
 Neuropathy 23 (7.4%) 13 (8.1%) 10 (6.6%)
Macrovascular complications 14 (4.5%) 11 (6.8%) 3 (1.9%)*
Fear of hypoglycemia 139 (44.6%) 70 (43.5%) 69 (45.7%)
Depression (MINI) 72 (23.1%) 24 (14.9%) 48 (31.7%)*
Anxiety (MINI) 56 (17.9%) 21 (13%) 35 (23.2%)*
  1. Data are expressed as Mean ± SD or n (%)
  2. Prevalence of Fear of Hypoglycemia is calculated according to FH-15 questionnaire
  3. CSII, Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion; MINI, Planned psychological interview
  4. aGlycemic instability is defined as number of episodes of severe hypoglycaemia, mild hypoglycaemia (≤ 70 mg/dl) and hyperglycemic excursions (≥ 250 mg/dl) in 15 days prior to evaluation
  5. *p < 0.05