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Table 2 Clinical and metabolic parameters in patients with IDM and NIDM at 10 years of follow-up

From: Non-immune-mediated versus immune-mediated type 1 diabetes: diagnosis and long-term differences—retrospective analysis

  IDM group
(n = 29; 78.4%)
Mean ± SD
Median (IQR)
NIDM group
(n = 8; 21.6%)
Mean ± SD
Median (IQR)
p value
Clinical parameters
 BMI (Kg/m2) 25.1 (4.2) 22.6 ± 3.5 0.079
 Arterial hypertension (%) 17.2 25.0 0.999
Metabolic parameters
 HbA1c (%) 8.7 (1.7) 7.4 (1.0) 0.008*
 TDID (U) 52.4 ± 16.7 33.5 (12) 0.017*
 Dyslipidemia (%) 44.8 62.5 0.999
 Total-C (mmol/L) 185.7 ± 43.2 184 (112) 0.728
 LDL-C (mmol/L) 108.5(51) 112 (89) 0.571
 HDL-C (mmol/L) 58.1 ± 13.7 58.4 ± 13.0 0.338
 Triglycerides (mmol/L) 79(51) 83 (169) 0.648
Long term complications
 Microvascular complications    
  Retinopathy 13.8 0 0.550
  Neuropathy 10.3 0 0.550
  Nephropathy 10.3 0 0.550
 Macrovascular complications    
  Coronary disease 0 12.5 0.250
  Cerebrovascular disease 3.4 0 0.999
  Peripheral arterial disease 0 0 NA
  1. SD: standard deviation; IQR: interquartile range; NA: not applicable
  2. p* < 0.05: statistically significant difference
  3. We found a reduction in HbA1C at 10 years of follow-up in both groups [2.4 ± 2.6% in the IDM group; 3.9 (4.0)  % in the NIDM group]. The HbA1C reduction was higher in the NIDM group, although it did not differ significantly (p = 0.109). With regard to the variation of the TDID, the IDM group had a higher need for insulin at 10 years compared to the diagnosis (52.4 ± 16.7U at 10 years versus 46.4 ± 15.3U at diagnosis), unlike the NIDM group [33, 5 (12) U at 10 years versus 40.1 ± 12.3 U at diagnosis] (Table 3)