Skip to main content

Table 1 Comparison of clinical characteristics between controls, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

From: Fasting triglycerides and glucose index: a useful screening test for assessing insulin resistance in patients diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus

Variables Controls
n = 50
RA
n = 95
SLE
n = 57
p
Age (years) mean ± SD 51.1 ± 7.7 53.9 ± 7.0 46.8 ± 9.8**,a,b < 0.001
Disease duration (years), mean ± SD 11.9 ± 9.1 12.1 ± 7.7 0.8
Smoking, n (%) 6 (12.0) 9 (9.9) 9 (15.8) 0.5
Sedentary lifestyle, n (%) 26 (52.0) 59 (62.1) 33 (57.9) 0.5
Hypertension, n (%) 4 (8.0) 32 (33.7) 16 (28.1) 0.003
Duration of hypertension (years), mean ± SD 7.3 ± 12.0 3.2 ± 6.8 2.0 ± 5.7 0.04
Menopause, n (%) 22 (45.8) 78 (82.1) 30 (52.6) < 0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2), mean ± SD 29.5 ± 2.3 28 ± 3.6*,a 29.1 ± 5.2 0.05
 Underweight-Normal, n (%) 11 (22.0) 20 (21.1) 14 (24.6) 0.8
 Overweight-obesity, n (%) 39 (78) 75 (78.9) 43 (75.4)  
Waist (cm), mean ± SD 92.4 ± 7.7 92 ± 9.5 92.7 ± 13.8 0.7
Total-cholesterol (mg/dL), mean ± SD 201.1 ± 33.5 196.6 ± 37.9 197.6 ± 40.9 0.7
Total-cholesterol (mmol/L), mean ± SD 3.2 ± 0.8 5 ± 0.9 5.1 ± 1.0 0.7
Elevated triglycerides, n (%) 29 (58.0) 25 (26.3) 24 (42.1) 0.07
HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL), mean ± SD 48.2 ± 14.3 52.3 ± 14.5 52.0 ± 14.6 0.2
 HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L), mean ± SD 1.2 ± 0.3 1.3 ± 0.3 1.3 ± 0.3 0.2
LDL-cholesterol (mg/dL), mean ± SD 115.7 ± 30.0 114.9 ± 33.0 115.8 ± 31.0 0.9
 LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L), mean ± SD 2.9 ± 0.7 2.9 ± 0.8 2.9 ± 0.8 0.9
Uric acid (mg/dL), mean ± SD 4.7 ± 0.9 4.4 ± 1.2 4.6 ± 1.1 0.1
 Uric acid (mmol/L), mean ± SD 2.8 ± 0.5 2.6 ± 0.7 2.7 ± 0.6 0.1
TyG-index results
 Insulin Resistance, mean ± SD 3.83 ± 0.22 4.67 ± 0.21**,a 4.71 ± 0.30**,a < 0.001
 Insulin Resistance, n (%) 5 (10.0) 48 (50.5) 28 (49.1) < 0.001
Fat mass% (DXA results), mean ± SD 46.2 ± 3.8 46.9 ± 4.9 48.5 ± 4.8**,a 0.02
Treatments
 Corticosteroid, n (%) 74 (77.9) 54 (94.7) 0.006
 Chloroquine, n (%) 16 (15.1) 26 (48.1) < 0.001
 Methotrexate, n (%) 55 (58.5) 9 (15.8) < 0.001
 Leflunomide, n (%) 27 (28.4) 5 (8.8) 0.004
 Biologics, n (%) 6 (6.3) 13 (22.8) < 0.001
  1. Italic values indicate significance of p value (p < 0.05)
  2. HDL-cholesterol high density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol low density lipoprotein cholesterol, DXA Dual-Energy X-Ray Absortiometry, comparisons of quantitative variables between the three groups were made with one-way ANOVA. p value represents the statistical differences in at least one of the groups. To identify differences between two groups a corrected T3-Dunett analysis was performed
  3. * p ≤ 0.05, ** p < 0.001
  4. aSignificant p-value between RA or SLE vs. controls
  5. bSignificant p-value between RA vs. SLE; elevated triglycerides were defined ≥ 1.69 mmol/L; biologics included in the analysis: adalimumab, rituximab and infliximab