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Table 1 Description of the studies included in the meta-analysis

From: Neck circumference in relation to glycemic parameters: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies

First author (year) Study/country Subject and gender Age range Or mean ± SD (y) Race/ethnicity Mean NC ± SD Sampling method Statistical test used Reported or extracted data Method of outcome assessment Adjusted variables Participants Quality Scorea
Dixon 2002 [25] –/USA F: 107 19–48 NR 40.6 ± 2.81 Consecutive Pearson FBG: 0.095 Insulin: 0.504 HbA1c: 0.095   Unadjusted Severely obese premenopausal women 8/10
Ben-Noun 2003 [20] –/Israel M: 231 F: 330 ≥18 Jewish 38.2 ± 2.7 34.2 ± 2.5 Consecutive Pearson FBG: 0.21 FBG: 0.44   Unadjusted Healthy 8/10
Onat 2009 [5] –/Turkey M: 934 55.1 ± 12 NR 38.8 ± 2.9 Random Pearson FBG: 0.05 Insulin: 0.37 HOMA-IR: 0.35   Age Healthy 9/10
F: 978    34.8 ± 2.75    FBG: 0.11 Insulin: 0.27 HOMA-IR: 0.30
Preis 2010 [13] Framingham Heart Study cohorts/USA M: 1720 28–62 NR 40.5 ± 2.9 Random Pearson FBG: 0.25 Insulin: 0.48 HOMA-IR: 0.49   Age Healthy 9/10
F: 1587    34.2 ± 2.8    FBG: 0.34 Insulin: 0.47 HOMA-IR: 0.51
Fitch 2011 [26] Massachusetts, USA M: 43/F: 131 18–65 NR 37.0 ± 3.96 Non-random Pearson FBG: 0.27 Insulin: 0.18 HbA1c: 0.16   Unadjusted HIV-infected 8/10
M: 26/F: 128    36.4 ± 3.72    FBG: 0.27 Insulin: 0.26 HbA1c: 0.28    Healthy  
Zhou 2013 [28] –/China M: 2508 men 20–85 Asian 37.4 ± 2.46 Random Pearson FBG:0.177   Age Healthy 9/10
F: 1693    32.4 ± 2.24    FBG: 0.180
Stabe 2013 [34] BRAMS/Brazil M: 301 18–60 Spanish 39.7 ± 2.9 Non-random Spearman FBG: 0.17 Insulin: 0.21 HOMA-IR: 0.30 HbA1c: 0.21   Age Healthy 9/10
F: 752    35.9 ± 2.8    FBG: 0.15 Insulin: 0.30 HOMA-IR: 0.42 HbA1c: 0.20
Pokharel 2014 [17] –/USA M: 845 45–63 NR 43.1 ± 9.65 Non-random Spearman FBG: 0.15   Unadjusted Retried NFL players/healthy 9/10
Kumar 2014 [29] –/India M: 250/F: 181 > 35 Asian 35.6 ± 3.37 Non-random Pearson FBG: 166   Unadjusted Patients of a clinic 9/10
Aoi 2014 [22] –/Japan F: 64 62.4 ± 7.1 Asian 32.0 ± 1.6 Non-random Pearson HOMA-IR:0.263 HbA1c:0.298   Age Healthy 9/10
Yan 2014 [30] –/China M = 971 Over 65 Asian 37.8 ± 2.8 Random Pearson FBG: 0.2   Unadjusted Healthy 8/10
F: 1121 years   34.4 ± 2.7    FBG: 0.2
Torriani 2014 [27] –/USA M = 152 55 ± 17 NR 44 ± 6 Consecutive Pearson FBG:0.28   Age, disease status, sex Healthy 10/10
F = 151    39 ± 7    FBG: NS
Wang 2015 [14] –/China M: 1144 20–65 Asian 39.4 ± 6.92 Random Pearson FBG: 0.25 HOMA-IR: 0.18   Unadjusted Healthy 8/10
F: 2163    36.2 ± 4.31    FBG: 0.06 HOMA-IR: 0.29
Liang 2015 [11] CRC/China M: 1008 18–93 Asian 37.7 ± 2.49 Random Pearson FBG: 0.054   Age Healthy 9/10
F: 701    32.7 ± 2.30    FBG: 0.161
Li 2015 [31] SPECT/China M: 744 50.1 ± 14.09 (18–89) Asian 34.5 ± 2.15 Random Pearson FBG: 0.06 Insulin: 0.11 HOMA-IR: 0.12 HbA1c: 0.11   Age Healthy 9/10
F: 1924    31.0 ± 2.22    FBG: 0.10 Insulin: 0.09 HOMA-IR: 0.17 HbA1c: 0.06
Baena 2016 [15] ELSA/Brazil M: 3810 62.4 ± 7.1 (35–74) Spanish 38.9 ± 2.6 Random Pearson FBG: 0.193 Insulin: 0.415 HOMA-IR: 0.443   Age Healthy 9/10
F: 4916    33.0 ± 2.6    FBG: 0.218 Insulin: 0.337 HOMA-IR: 0.400
Joshipura 2016 [12] SOALS/USA M: 329/F: 877 45–65 NR (42.0 ± 4.8) (36.1 ± 2.9) Random Pearson FBG: 0.10 HOMA-IR: 0.45 HbA1c: 0.28   Age, gender, smoking status & physical activity Overweight or obese 10/10
Selvan 2016 [32] –/India M: 258 30–80 Asian 35.5 ± 17.0 Non-random Pearson FBG: 0.025 HbA1c: 0.024   Age Healthy 9/10
F: 193    32.0 ± 19.0    
FBG: 0.221 HbA1c: 0.144
Assyov 2017 [35] –/Bulgaria M: 102 49 ± 12 (45–70) White 41.0 ± 4.0 Non-random Pearson FBG: 0.338 Insulin: 0.465 HOMA-IR: 0.385 HbA1c: 0.215   Age Healthy 9/10
F: 153    38.0 ± 3.0    FBG: 0.485 Insulin: 0.318 HOMA-IR: 0.369 HbA1c: 0.183
Jiang 2017 [33] –/China M: 3369 ≥ 40 60.0 ± 7.8 Asian 38.2 ± 2.63 Random Pearson FBG: 0.11 HbA1c: 0.01   Unadjusted Healthy 8/10
F: 5062    33.9 ± 2.45    FBG: 0.19 HbA1c: 0.03
Zhong 2017 [9] –/China M: 965 ≥ 65 37.21 ± 6.72 Asian 37.8 ± 2.80 Consecutive Spearman FBG: 0.195   Unadjusted Elders/healthy 8/10
F: 1109    34.4 ± 2.75    FBG: 0.194
  1. NC neck circumference, WC waist circumference, HC hip circumference, NR not reported, M male, F female, FBG fasting blood glucose, HOMA-IR homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, HbA1c hemoglobin A1c, SD standard deviation
  2. aBased on Newcastle–Ottawa quality assessment scale (adapted for cross sectional studies) [23]