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Table 2 Characteristics of all subjects with and without insulin resistance

From: Insulin resistance exhibits varied metabolic abnormalities in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic hepatitis B and the combination of the two: a cross-sectional study

  HC NAFLD CHB CHB with NAFLD
HOMA-IR ≤ 2.7 HOMA-IR > 2.7 P HOMA-IR ≤ 2.7 HOMA-IR > 2.7 P HOMA-IR ≤ 2.7 HOMA-IR > 2.7 P HOMA-IR ≤ 2.7 HOMA-IR > 2.7 P
(N = 648) (N = 19) (N = 554) (N = 324) (N = 855) (N = 115) (N = 148) (N = 105)
Male (n %) 430 (66) 10 (53) 0.017 406 (73) 212 (65) 0.318 569 (67) 82 (71) 0.361 111 (75) 81 (77) 0.808
Age (year) 39.4 (9.4) 43.6 (10.3) 0.182 41.4 (11.2) 39.6 (12.2) 0.019 39.9 (11.7) 39.4 (10.3) 0.625 41.2 (10.4) 40.7 (11.1) 0.53
BMI (kg/m2) 21.68 (2.39) 23.90 (3.00) < 0.001 25.67 (3.12) 28.01 (4.22) < 0.001 21.87 (3.01) 24.21 (3.14) < 0.001 25.03 (3.03) 27.36 (4.16) < 0.001
Waist–hip ratio 0.80 (0.06) 0.79 (0.03) 0.001 0.89 (0.04) 0.90 (0.05) 0.557 0.84 (0.07) 0.87 (0.06) < 0.001 0.88 (0.05) 0.90 (0.05) 0.004
SBP (mmHg) 116.2 (11.8) 124.8 (11.6) < 0.001 126.8 (13.7) 130.7 (14.7) 0.001 124.2 (10.1) 127.2 (14.0) 0.004 128.7 (10.9) 130.5 (12.0) 0.286
DBP (mmHg) 72.0 (9.4) 74.4 (10.7) < 0.001 80.9 (10.1) 84.4 (11.0) 0.241 81.1 (7.2) 85.1 (9.7) < 0.001 85.2 (9.4) 86.7 (12.5) 0.078
CHOL (mmol/L) 4.69 (0.63) 5.18 (0.77) 0.023 5.40 (1.04) 5.57 (1.16) 0.001 4.90 (1.08) 5.03 (1.01) 0.206 5.04 (1.04) 5.53 (1.03) < 0.001
TG (mmol/L) 0.99 (0.48) 1.33 (0.65) 0.093 2.40 (2.10) 2.69 (2.96) 0.003 1.24 (0.72) 1.56 (1.02) < 0.001 1.63 (1.04) 1.89 (1.53) 0.114
HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.36 (0.24) 1.31 (0.25) 0.001 1.17 (0.35) 1.09 (0.31) 0.323 1.35 (0.39) 1.24 (0.39) 0.002 1.17 (0.28) 1.17 (0.50) 0.880
LDL-C (mmol/L) 2.87 (0.68) 3.43 (0.78) 0.051 3.28 (0.88) 3.40 (0.93) < 0.001 3.05 (0.83) 3.16 (0.87) 0.161 3.20 (0.85) 3.64 (0.87) < 0.001
FBG (mmol/L) 4.77 (0.44) 5.12 (0.51) < 0.001 5.12 (0.81) 5.79 (1.47) 0.001 4.73 (0.62) 5.56 (0.97) < 0.001 4.83 (0.65) 5.88 (1.70) < 0.001
FINS (μU/mL) 5.90 (2.02) 17.86 (11.72) < 0.001 7.96 (2.58) 16.98 (9.34) < 0.001 5.96 (2.61) 16.93 (6.00) < 0.001 7.41 (2.47) 18.37 (8.51) < 0.001
HOMA-IR 1.26 (0.47) 4.04 (2.71) < 0.001 1.79 (0.57) 4.31 (2.72) < 0.001 1.26 (0.59) 4.23 (2.00) < 0.001 1.59 (0.56) 4.82 (3.04) < 0.001
UA (μmol/L) 309.4 (88.8) 319.6 (81.2) < 0.001 394.2 (99.0) 418.9 (106.2) 0.593 337.2 (92.2) 351.9 (89.0) 0.103 393.1 (99.2) 413.0 (83.3) 0.089
ALT (U/L) 20.0 (10.1) 31.0 (17.8) < 0.001 45.2 (39.2) 61.9 (49.7) < 0.001 53.5 (91.1) 64.2 (88.3) 0.252 51.9 (55.0) 77.4 (76.2) 0.002
AST (U/L) 23.3 (5.9) 27.4 (6.1) 0.004 35.0 (26.9) 40.2 (24.4) 0.006 44.0 (77.2) 43.9 (48.1) 0.999 40.4 (45.3) 50.9 (40.2) 0.036
ALB (g/L) 46.49 (0.17) 46.54 (0.11) 0.207 46.06 (2.50) 45.81 (3.26) 0.221 44.83 (3.98) 44.96 (4.93) 0.765 45.15 (3.83) 45.21 (3.84) 0.867
TB (μmol/L) 13.59 (0.19) 13.53 (0.14) 0.225 14.62 (4.90) 14.19 (5.31) 0.123 15.28 (6.75) 14.48 (6.83) 0.233 15.44 (7.17) 14.34 (4.46) 0.163
  1. Data are expressed as n (%) and mean (standard deviation)
  2. HC: health control; NAFLD: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; CHB: chronic hepatitis B; BMI: body mass index; SBP: systolic blood pressure; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; CHOL: total cholesterol; TG: triglycerides; HDL-C: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; UA: uric acid; ALB: albumin; TB: total bilirubin; ALT: alanine aminotransferase; AST: aspartate aminotransferase; FBG: fasting blood glucose; FINS: serum insulin