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Table 1 Fasting glucose, serum fructosamine, HbA1C, serum and urinary creatinine, eGFR, urinary microalbumin and total protein in control and test groups

From: Characterization of low molecular weight urinary proteins at varying time intervals in type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy patients

Serum and urinary biochemical parameters Control Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) with normoalbuminuria Type 2 diabetes with micro albuminuria Diabetic nephropathy Non diabetic nephropathy
0–5 years 5–10 years 10–15 years 15–20 years
No. of patients 48 59 38 37 25 50 83 50
BMI (Kg/m2) 21.57 ± 0.9 27.21 ± 0.7
NSa
26.52 ± 0.7
NSab
26.21 ± 0.3
NSabc
26.11 ± 0.5
NSabcd
23.92 ± 0.7
NSabcde
24.01 ± 0.4
NSabcdef
23.62 ± 0.8
NSabcdefg
Fasting glucose mg/dl 93.96 ± 2.1 149.4 ± 7.5
***a
138.5 ± 7.5
***aNSb
147.4 ± 5.3
***aNSbc
150.2 ± 6.7
***aNSbcd
155.6 ± 4.2
***aNSbcde
157.6 ± 5.5
***aNSbcdef
92.8 ± 3.8
NSa
HbA1C% 4.5 ± 0.3 7.5 ± 1.3
***a
7.0 ± 0.2
***aNSb
8.6 ± 0.3
***aNSbc
8.9 ± 0.5
***aNSbcd
9.6 ± 0.8
***aNSbcde
10.6 ± 0.8
***aNSbcdef
4.3 ± 0.1
NSa
Serum fructosamine 143.3 ± 7.4 300.6 ± 19.0
***a
315.6 ± 13.8
***a bNS
354.2 ± 18.6
***aNSbc
428.8 ± 27.5
***a **bcNSd
469.4 ± 17.5
***abcdNSe
523.5 ± 12.4
***abc**dNSef
158.4 ± 8.06
NSa
Serum creatinine mg/dl 0.75 ± 0.1 0.89 ± 0.5
NSa
0.9 ± 0.04
NSab
1.1 ± 0.7
NSabc
1.1 ± 0.1
NSabcd
1.7 ± 0.7
***abcNSde
4.3 ± 0.8
***abcdef
4.9 ± 0.2
*** abcdefNSg
eGFR ml/min/1.73 m2 94.7 ± 4.3 98.8 ± 4.7
NSa
98.2 ± 5.0
NSab
96.3 ± 6.4
NSabc
80.0 ± 6.1
NSabcd
63.3 ± 5.3
*** abcd ***e
34.5 ± 1.9
***abcd **e *f
33.4 ± 4.4
*** abcdeNSfg
Urinary micro albumin mg/g creatinine 12.1 ± 0.7 12.6 ± 0.9
NSa
10.6 ± 1.1
NSab
12.45 ± 3.1
NSabc
12.73 ± 1.9
NSabcd
165.1 ± 10.2
***abcde
322.5 ± 7.8
***abcdef
329.8 ± 4.5
*** abcdefNSg
Urinary total protein by BCA mg/dl urine 9.6 ± 0.78 10.7 ± 0.56
NSa
17.8 ± 0.1
NSab
18.1 ± 0.34
NSabc
19.4 ± 0.11
NSabcd
186.4 ± 0.96
***abcde
448.3 ± 0.12
***abcdef
450.1 ± 0.89
*** abcdefNSg
Urinary total protein by microfluidic array mg/dl urine 13.7 ± 0.5 13.8 ± 0.7
NSa
21.3 ± 0.1
NSab
23.4 ± 0.18
NSabc
26.9 ± 0.27
NSabcd
192.4 ± 1.6
***abcdef
568.9 ± 0.57
***abcdef
571.8 ± 0.46
*** abcdefNSg
  1. The results are expressed as mean + SE and p < 0.05 is considered significant. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.001, *** p < 0.0001
  2. a—compared with control, b—compared with 0–5 years T2DM, c—compared with 5–10 years T2DM, d—compared with 1–15 years T2DM, e—compared with 15–20 years T2DM, f—compared with microalbuminuria, g—compared with diabetic nephropathy
  3. NS, non significant