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Table 1 Fasting glucose, serum fructosamine, HbA1C, serum and urinary creatinine, eGFR, urinary microalbumin and total protein in control and test groups

From: Characterization of low molecular weight urinary proteins at varying time intervals in type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy patients

Serum and urinary biochemical parameters Control Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) with normoalbuminuria Type 2 diabetes with micro albuminuria Diabetic nephropathy Non diabetic nephropathy
0–5 years 5–10 years 10–15 years 15–20 years
No. of patients 48 59 38 37 25 50 83 50
BMI (Kg/m2) 21.57 ± 0.9 27.21 ± 0.7 NSa 26.52 ± 0.7 NSab 26.21 ± 0.3 NSabc 26.11 ± 0.5 NSabcd 23.92 ± 0.7 NSabcde 24.01 ± 0.4 NSabcdef 23.62 ± 0.8 NSabcdefg
Fasting glucose mg/dl 93.96 ± 2.1 149.4 ± 7.5 ***a 138.5 ± 7.5 ***aNSb 147.4 ± 5.3 ***aNSbc 150.2 ± 6.7 ***aNSbcd 155.6 ± 4.2 ***aNSbcde 157.6 ± 5.5 ***aNSbcdef 92.8 ± 3.8 NSa
HbA1C% 4.5 ± 0.3 7.5 ± 1.3 ***a 7.0 ± 0.2 ***aNSb 8.6 ± 0.3 ***aNSbc 8.9 ± 0.5 ***aNSbcd 9.6 ± 0.8 ***aNSbcde 10.6 ± 0.8 ***aNSbcdef 4.3 ± 0.1 NSa
Serum fructosamine 143.3 ± 7.4 300.6 ± 19.0 ***a 315.6 ± 13.8 ***a bNS 354.2 ± 18.6 ***aNSbc 428.8 ± 27.5 ***a **bcNSd 469.4 ± 17.5 ***abcdNSe 523.5 ± 12.4 ***abc**dNSef 158.4 ± 8.06 NSa
Serum creatinine mg/dl 0.75 ± 0.1 0.89 ± 0.5 NSa 0.9 ± 0.04 NSab 1.1 ± 0.7 NSabc 1.1 ± 0.1 NSabcd 1.7 ± 0.7 ***abcNSde 4.3 ± 0.8 ***abcdef 4.9 ± 0.2 *** abcdefNSg
eGFR ml/min/1.73 m2 94.7 ± 4.3 98.8 ± 4.7 NSa 98.2 ± 5.0 NSab 96.3 ± 6.4 NSabc 80.0 ± 6.1 NSabcd 63.3 ± 5.3 *** abcd ***e 34.5 ± 1.9 ***abcd **e *f 33.4 ± 4.4 *** abcdeNSfg
Urinary micro albumin mg/g creatinine 12.1 ± 0.7 12.6 ± 0.9 NSa 10.6 ± 1.1 NSab 12.45 ± 3.1 NSabc 12.73 ± 1.9 NSabcd 165.1 ± 10.2 ***abcde 322.5 ± 7.8 ***abcdef 329.8 ± 4.5 *** abcdefNSg
Urinary total protein by BCA mg/dl urine 9.6 ± 0.78 10.7 ± 0.56 NSa 17.8 ± 0.1 NSab 18.1 ± 0.34 NSabc 19.4 ± 0.11 NSabcd 186.4 ± 0.96 ***abcde 448.3 ± 0.12 ***abcdef 450.1 ± 0.89 *** abcdefNSg
Urinary total protein by microfluidic array mg/dl urine 13.7 ± 0.5 13.8 ± 0.7 NSa 21.3 ± 0.1 NSab 23.4 ± 0.18 NSabc 26.9 ± 0.27 NSabcd 192.4 ± 1.6 ***abcdef 568.9 ± 0.57 ***abcdef 571.8 ± 0.46 *** abcdefNSg
  1. The results are expressed as mean + SE and p < 0.05 is considered significant. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.001, *** p < 0.0001
  2. a—compared with control, b—compared with 0–5 years T2DM, c—compared with 5–10 years T2DM, d—compared with 1–15 years T2DM, e—compared with 15–20 years T2DM, f—compared with microalbuminuria, g—compared with diabetic nephropathy
  3. NS, non significant