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Table 2 Clinical parameters of patients treated with placebo or EMPA

From: Anti-inflammatory effects of empagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance

Month of study Placebo (n=51) EMPA (n=51) Placebo vs. EMPA
0 3 6 9 12 0 3 6 9 12 p value
FBG (mg/dL) 130.3 (25.7) 123.5 (22.9) 126.8 (24.8) 124.8 (32.9) 130.7 (26.2) 139.1 (36.1) 123.3 (21.9)* 122.9 (22.4)* 121.4 (22.5)* 122.1 (21.3)* 0.93
IRI (mU/mL) 9.1 (3.8) 8.7 (3.8) 9.2 (4.4) 9.5 (4.5) 10.3 (4.6)* 10.9 (6.2) 9.2 (4.4)* 8.4 (4.4)* 7.6 (3.3)* 6.5 (2.4)* 0.507
HOMA-IR 2.61 (1.26) 2.70 (1.38) 2.94 (1.54)* 3.06 (1.67)* 3.43 (1.92)* 3.56 (2.01) 2.87 (1.95)* 2.60 (1.60)* 2.27 (1.12)* 2.03 (1.01)* 0.0163
HbA1c (%) 6.84 (0.85) 6.77 (0.81) 6.92 (0.88) 6.86 (0.93) 6.88 (0.76) 7.01 (1.1) 6.86 (0.82)* 6.88 (0.91)* 6.94 (0.96)* 6.90 (0.96)* 0.119
BMI 30.0 (4.4) 30.1 (4.3) 30.2 (4.4) 30.2 (4.6) 30.0 (3.7) 31.0 (4.8) 30.0 (4.9)* 29.5 (4.6)* 29.4 (4.5)* 29.4 (4.9)* 0.385
hsCRP (mg/L) 1.46 (1.4) 1.43 (1.56) 1.74 (1.87) 1.47 (1.66) 1.71 (1.64) 1.33 (1.0) 1.13 (0.73) 0.92 (0.68)* 0.73 (0.56)* 0.59 (0.42)* 0.00706
LDL-C (mg/dL) 118.6 (25.1) 121.1 (25.6) 121.1 (23.8) 121.9 (24.4) 123.8 (25.8) 112.6 (27.9) 115.6 (27.3) 115.1 (23.4) 118.6 (20.0) 114.0 (19.7) 0.188
HDL-C (mg/dL) 55.1 (12.3) 54.7 (10.5) 55.4 (12.6) 54.5 (10.6) 53.3 (11.4) 55.3 (12.0) 57.8 (14.1)* 57.3 (12.9)* 58.8 (13.6)* 61.2 (15.2)* 0.222
TG (mg/dL) 129.4 (61.3) 139.8 (81.7) 142.6 (64.1) 139.9 (58.4) 153.5 (75.0) 157.8 (80.5) 130.4 (53.7)* 134.3 (54.7)* 127.6 (43.0)* 113.4 (54.6)* 0.553
RLP-C (mg/dL) 6.27 (3.96) 6.74 (5.65) 6.79 (4.28) 6.61 (4.13) 7.91 (5.57) 8.13 (5.02) 5.25 (3.17)* 5.26 (2.90) 4.87 (2.75)* 3.94 (2.10)* 0.029
AST (IU/L) 27.2 (13.8) 27.8 (11.6) 25.8 (9.4) 26.9 (9.2) 27.1 (9.9) 28.7 (14.2) 25.6 (10.8)* 26.2 (10.1) 24.7 (8.6) 23.9 (9.4)* 0.583
ALT (IU/L) 33.2 (22.4) 35.3 (24.6) 34.4 (20.1) 34.3 (21.2) 35.7 (24.6) 37.0 (21.0) 32.0 (20.3)* 32.0 (19.6)* 31.0 (20.2)* 28.6 (20.1)* 0.6
γGTP (IU/L) 50.1 (36.1) 49.5 (33.2) 50.7 (34.3) 48.5 (28.7) 51.3 (30.5) 46.5 (32.4) 39.2 (23.8)* 41.0 (25.7)* 39.0 (24.6)* 35.1 (22.3)* 0.0558
eGFR (mL/min/1.73m2) 71.9 (18.6) 71.7 (19.5) 71.9 (19.0) 72.3 (17.5) 71.6 (19.1) 74.3 (16.3) 70.9 (16.4)* 71.2 (15.4)* 72.9 (17.4) 72.1 (16.6) 0.956
ACR (mg/gCr) 69.7 (289) 106.1 (425) 104.0 (467) 111.0 (514) 61.8 (149) 94.9 (244) 45.3 (78.3) 40.2 (68.7) 39.6 (65.1) 36.0 (62.4) 0.806
SBP (mmHg) 128.0 (15.6) 127.0 (17.4) 128.6 (16.6) 129.9 (15.5) 128.7 (15.6) 130.5 (21.2) 125.1 (14.8)* 126.3 (14.7)* 122.4 (13.7)* 121.0 (13.3)* 0.022
DBP (mmHg) 77.5 (10.3) 75.8 (9.3) 77.1 (9.7) 77.2 (10.7) 75.5 (14.2) 78.1 (9.8) 71.9 (16.4)* 73.3 (11.0)* 72.2 (10.3)* 72.8 (10.5)* 0.0187
  1. Values are shown as means ± SD in parentheses
  2. BW body weight, BMI body mass index, FBG fasting blood glucose, HbA1c hemoglobin A1c, IRI immuno reactive insulin, HOMA-IR homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, LDL-C LDL cholesterol, HDL-C HDL choresterol, TG triglyceride, RLP-C remnant-like particle cholesterol, AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALT alanine amino transferase, γGTP gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, ACR albumin-to-creatinine ratio, hsCRP highly sensitivity C-reactive protein, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure
  3. *Intragroup comparison: p < 0 .05 (paired t test)
  4. Intergroup comparison for 12 months between placebo and EMPA: p < 0 .05 (repeated measures ANOVA)