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Table 3 The effect of probiotic supplementation on metabolic status in type 2 diabetic patients with coronary heart disease

From: The effects of probiotic supplementation on metabolic status in type 2 diabetic patients with coronary heart disease

Variables Placebo group (n = 30) Probiotic group (n = 30) Difference in outcome measures between probiotic and placebo treatment groupsa
Baseline Week 12 Baseline Week 12 β (95% CI) P 2
FPG (mg/dL) 128.8 ± 47.2 138.2 ± 33.5 133.8 ± 43.6 120.6 ± 38.7 − 20.02 (− 33.86, 6.17) 0.005
Insulin (μIU/mL) 13.8 ± 8.6 14.7 ± 8.5 14.3 ± 5.6 13.1 ± 5.2 − 2.09 (− 3.77, − 0.41) 0.01
HOMA-IR 4.5 ± 3.6 4.6 ± 3.2 4.8 ± 2.7 4.4 ± 2.4 − 0.50 (− 0.96, − 0.03) 0.03
QUICKI 0.32 ± 0.03 0.31 ± 0.02 0.31 ± 0.02 0.31 ± 0.02 0.008 (0.001, 0.01) 0.02
Triglycerides (mg/dL) 146.2 ± 67.4 152.4 ± 66.9 139.0 ± 61.3 140.2 ± 64.9 − 8.93 (− 30.54, 12.68) 0.41
VLDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) 29.2 ± 13.5 30.5 ± 13.4 27.8 ± 12.3 28.1 ± 13.0 − 1.78 (− 6.10, 2.53) 0.41
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 143.5 ± 30.5 146.3 ± 34.0 149.7 ± 26.6 144.6 ± 27.2 − 6.62 (− 18.86, 5.62) 0.28
LDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) 71.2 ± 26.3 73.0 ± 24.1 74.9 ± 22.0 68.1 ± 21.1 − 6.68 (− 15.53, 2.15) 0.13
HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) 43.0 ± 7.2 42.8 ± 6.2 46.8 ± 6.7 48.4 ± 7.4 2.52 (0.04, 5.00) 0.04
Total-/HDL-cholesterol ratio 3.4 ± 0.8 3.4 ± 0.7 3.2 ± 0.6 3.0 ± 0.6 − 0.27 (− 0.52, − 0.03) 0.02
hs-CRP (mg/L) 4.8 ± 2.5 4.9 ± 2.6 5.1 ± 2.8 4.3 ± 2.6 − 0.88 (− 1.39, − 0.38) 0.001
NO (µmol/L) 46.6 ± 10.0 44.2 ± 8.3 42.4 ± 6.2 46.5 ± 7.4 4.28 (0.66, 7.91) 0.02
TAC (mmol/L) 895.3 ± 301.9 873.3 ± 276.3 965.5 ± 239.4 1044.4 ± 254.9 108.44 (47.61, 169.27) 0.001
GSH (µmol/L) 506.3 ± 96.5 505.3 ± 107.9 586.2 ± 156.3 629.4 ± 169.5 45.15 (5.82, 84.47) 0.02
MDA (µmol/L) 2.7 ± 0.7 2.6 ± 0.4 3.1 ± 1.3 2.7 ± 1.4 − 0.23 (− 0.53, − 0.07) 0.13
SBP (mmHg) 128.3 ± 14.4 127.0 ± 15.1 125.1 ± 12.8 123.2 ± 13.3 − 1.30 (− 5.96, 3.35) 0.57
DBP (mmHg) 79.3 ± 8.8 78.2 ± 8.5 77.9 ± 6.9 76.2 ± 8.0 − 1.08 (− 3.51, 1.35) 0.37
  1. Data are mean ± SDs
  2. DBP diastolic blood pressure, FPG fasting plasma glucose, GSH total glutathione, HOMA-IR homeostasis model of assessment-estimated insulin resistance, hs-CRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, MDA malondialdehyde, NO nitric oxide, QUICKI quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, SBP systolic blood pressure, TAC total antioxidant capacity
  3. a”Outcome measures” refers to the change in values of measures of interest between baseline and week 12. β [difference in the mean outcomes measures between treatment groups (probiotic group = 1 and placebo group = 0)]
  4. 2Obtained from multiple regression model (adjusted for baseline values of each biochemical variables, age and baseline BMI)