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Table 1 Characteristics and dietary consumption in a cross-sectional study by categories of energy-adjusted total protein intake

From: Association between dietary protein intake and type 2 diabetes varies by dietary pattern

  Q1:50.8 g/day (46.3, 53.6)a Q2:59.6 g/day (57.8, 61.5)a Q3:68.0 g/day (65.7, 70.4)a Q4:81.6 g/day (76.3, 89.9)a
Demographic and lifestyle factors
 N (cases) 2173 (146) 21,734 (128) 2173 (145) 2174 (142)
 BMI (kg/m2) 23.0 ± 3.5 23.2 ± 3.5 23.4 ± 3.4 23.6 ± 3.5
 PAL (×BMR) 1.70 ± 0.32 1.65 ± 0.30 1.62 ± 0.29 1.60 ± 0.29
 Residence area
  Urban (%) 19.8 26.2 36.5 44.4
 Gender
  Male (%) 49.1 43.4 46.0 50.6
 Education level
  Low (%) 52.7 46.0 39.9 32.3
  Middle (%) 44.3 50.1 53.6 60.1
  High (%) 3.0 3.9 6.4 7.6
 Annual income, RMB
  < 9000 68.5 65.2 53.6 50.7
  9000–15,000 16.4 18.9 22.3 21.9
  > 15,000–25,000 10.4 10.7 14.9 16.9
  > 25,000 4.7 5.2 9.2 10.5
 Former or current smoking (%) 33.4 30.2 28.0 33.1
 Tea consumption (yes, %) 29.0 29.6 31.7 36.4
 Coffee consumption (yes, %) 1.3 1.7 2.4 4.0
 Alcohol consumption (yes, %) 20.9 17.3 20.7 22.2
Daily nutrient intakes
 Total energy (kcal/day)b 2277.1 ± 658.0 1976.1 ± 582.4 2031.8 ± 595.7 2234.5 ± 618.6
 Total protein (g/day)b 52.4 ± 15.7 55.5 ± 15.5 65.4 ± 16.0 87.9 ± 22.6
 Total protein (energy%)b 9.2 ± 1.1 11.3 ± 0.6 13.1 ± 1.0 16.0 ± 2.4
 Animal protein (g/day)b 10.6 ± 8.8 12.8 ± 8.9 17.7 ± 10.4 29.0 ± 16.4
 From red meat (g/day)b 7.2 ± 7.5 8.3 ± 7.7 10.5 ± 9.3 18.0 ± 14.5
 From poultry (g/day)b 0.8 ± 2.3 1.0 ± 2.7 2.1 ± 4.4 4.3 ± 7.0
 From dairy (g/day)b 0.1 ± 0.8 0.2 ± 1.0 0.5 ± 2.1 0.8 ± 2.8
 From egg (g/day)b 2.2 ± 2.9 3.0 ± 3.5 3.9 ± 4.0 5.0 ± 5.6
 From seafood (g/day)b 1.4 ± 2.9 2.0 ± 3.9 3.5 ± 5.3 7.3 ± 9.7
 Plant protein (g/day)b 37.8 ± 13.5 37.7 ± 13.9 40.3 ± 16.1 47.1 ± 21.7
 From grain (g/day)b 28.7 ± 11.4 28.0 ± 11.9 28.5 ± 13.7 27.0 ± 13.9
 From coarse cereals (g/day)b 2.0 ± 3.8 1.7 ± 2.7 1.5 ± 2.8 1.3 ± 2.5
 From vegetable (g/day)b 4.6 ± 3.0 4.5 ± 3.1 4.7 ± 3.3 5.5 ± 3.8
 From fruit (g/day)b 0.2 ± 0.5 0.2 ± 0.5 0.2 ± 0.5 0.3 ± 0.6
 From legumes (g/day)b 2.3 ± 3.8 3.2 ± 4.8 5.2 ± 6.5 11.3 ± 14.3
 From nuts and seeds (g/day)b 0.3 ± 1.7 0.5 ± 2.0 0.7 ± 3.0 1.0 ± 3.5
 From tubers (g/day)b 0.4 ± 0.4 0.4 ± 0.4 0.7 ± 0.6 1.9 ± 0.7
 Total fat (g/day)b 86.3 ± 42.7 66.6 ± 30.8 67.5 ± 30.1 78.0 ± 31.9
 Total fat (energy%)b 33.7 ± 11.6 30.1 ± 9.8 29.9 ± 9.6 31.4 ± 9.2
 Saturated fat (g/day)b 10.7 ± 9.0 7.2 ± 5.4 7.2 ± 5.2 8.5 ± 5.6
 Monounsaturated fat (g/day)b 21.2 ± 15.5 14.3 ± 10.6 14.0 ± 10.0 16.2 ± 11.1
 Polyunsaturated fat (g/day)b 19.4 ± 17.2 13.7 ± 10.0 13.3 ± 9.5 14.2 ± 9.6
 Total carbohydrate (g/day)b 324.5 ± 105.9 296.1 ± 98.6 299.2 ± 105.7 305.4 ± 106.0
 Total carbohydrate (energy%)b 57.7 ± 11.7 60.2 ± 10.3 58.8 ± 10.2 54.5 ± 10.0
 Cholesterol (mg/day)b 171.1 ± 154.7 206.8 ± 166.9 269.3 ± 175.4 395.1 ± 270.4
 Fiber (g/day)b 10.5 ± 5.8 10.1 ± 5.0 11.6 ± 7.2 13.9 ± 8.9
  1. Values were presented as mean ± standard deviation, median (IQRs) or proportions
  2. a Estimated intake energy adjusted by the residual method
  3. b Actual daily nutrients intake without energy adjustment