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Table 3 EQ-VAS in the intervention group at follow-up, various subgroups disaggregated by sex

From: The impact of a disease management programme for type 2 diabetes on health-related quality of life: multilevel analysis of a cluster-randomised controlled trial

  Number of participants EQ-VAS, mean difference ± SD p value
Total 512 2.19 ± 17.55 0.005
Subgroups Female/male Female Male p valuea p valueb p valuec
Female/male 249/263 2.46 ± 18.46 1.92 ± 16.68 0.005 0.729 < 0.001
Non Austrian 10/15 1.50 ± 24.50 − 0.33 ± 27.12 0.914 0.865 0.490
Austrian 239/248 2.50 ± 18.23 2.06 ± 15.91 0.003 0.776 0.029
Living with a partner 159/223 2.48 ± 17.95 2.25 ± 16.59 0.008 0.897 0.002
Living alone 85/35 2.81 ± 19.77 − 0.71 ± 17.94 0.589 0.364 0.425
High education (school leaving examination or higher) 17/32 3.53 ± 18.18 3.47 ± 17.57 0.196 0.991 0.073
No higher education 229/229 2.28 ± 18.61 1.77 ± 16.64 0.014 0.755 0.002
Not working fulltime 227/211 2.30 ± 18.51 2.73 ± 16.15 0.003 0.796 0.001
Working fulltime 21/52 3.81 ± 18.63 − 1.37 ± 18.47 0.611 0.283 0.046
Non-smoker 222/221 2.18 ± 18.09 2.53 ± 16.28 0.004 0.831 < 0.001
Current smoker 27/42 4.74 ± 21.52 − 1.29 ± 18.54 0.481 0.220 0.122
No manifestation of coronary heart diseased 219/216 2.77 ± 18.23 1.69 ± 17.51 0.010 0.528 < 0.001
Any manifestation of coronary heart diseased 30/47 0.23 ± 20.22 3.02 ± 12.26 0.381 0.453 0.410
No macrovascular diabetic complicatione 189/192 3.06 ± 17.39 2.11 ± 17.16 0.004 0.592 0.001
Any macrovascular diabetic complicatione 60/71 0.58 ± 21.53 1.42 ± 15.41 0.537 0.796 0.022
Non guideline adherence treatmentf 130/134 2.22 ± 17.34 1.21 ± 17.44 0.110 0.636 0.004
Full guideline adherence treatmentf 119/129 2.72 ± 19.68 2.67 ± 15.89 0.018 0.980 0.012
  1. aWithin-subject factor (time)
  2. bWithin-subject factor (time*sex)
  3. cBetween subject factors (sex)
  4. dMyocardial infarction and/or PTCA/stenting and/or coronary bypass
  5. eMyocardial infarction and/or PTCA/stenting and/or coronary bypass and/or stroke and/or carotid surgery and/or amputation/gangrene and/or peripheral artery bypass or PTA
  6. fA full guideline adherence treatment covered four aspects: patient education; diagnostic measures (i.e. regular HbA1c-checks); ophthalmological and foot examinations