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Table 1 The effects of HFHF diet on serum glucose, insulin, triglyceride, NEFA, cholesterol, uric acid, AST and ALT levels in Lee-Sung pigs after 12-month feeding

From: Long-term feeding of high-fat plus high-fructose diet induces isolated impaired glucose tolerance and skeletal muscle insulin resistance in miniature pigs

  Low-fat diet (n = 3) HFHF diet (n = 4) HFHF/low-fat (fold) p value
Metabolic parameters
 Glucose (mg/dl) 64.7 ± 3.0 72.3 ± 8.4 1.12 0.490
 Insulin (pM) 7.3 ± 1.3 55.0 ± 13.0* 7.50 0.027
 Triglyceride (mg/dl) 17.3 ± 3.8 81.0 ± 14.7* 4.68 0.016
 NEFA (μM) 32.8 ± 9.7 155.2 ± 17.0** 4.73 0.002
 Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 70.0 ± 5.0 69.5 ± 2.9 0.99 0.930
 HDL-c (mg/dl) 41.1 ± 4.8 29.8 ± 1.3* 0.73 0.046
 LDL&VLDL-c (mg/dl) 43.2 ± 2.5 53.9 ± 3.1 1.25 0.054
 HDL/LDL&VLDL ratio 0.95 ± 0.12 0.56 ± 0.05* 0.59 0.019
 Uric acid (mg/dl) < 1.0 < 1.0
Hepatitis parameters
 AST (IU/l) 12.0 ± 5.0 17.3 ± 9.0 1.44 0.667
 ALT (IU/l) 49.3 ± 4.4 34.0 ± 6.4 0.69 0.128
  1. All pigs were fasted 6 h before taking blood samples
  2. HFHF high-fat plus high-fructose diet, NEFA non-esterified fatty acids, HDL-c high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, LDL&VLDL-c low density and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, AST aspartate transaminase, ALT alanine transaminase
  3. p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, Data are expressed as means ± SEM (low-fat diet, n = 3; HFHF diet, n = 4)