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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the patients with type 2 diabetes according to urinary ACR and NAPCR cutoff points

From: Addition of nonalbumin proteinuria to albuminuria improves prediction of type 2 diabetic nephropathy progression

  Normoalbuminuria Albuminuria P value
NAPCR < 120 mg/g NAPCR ≥ 120 mg/g NAPCR < 120 mg/g NAPCR ≥ 120 mg/g
(n = 146) (n = 57) (n = 40) (n = 82)
Sex, male (%) 57 (39.0) 17 (29.8) 20 (50.0) 32 (39.0) 0.256
Age, years 54.7 ± 11.4 56.5 ± 9.8 59.7 ± 9.1 54.3 ± 12.0 0.021
BMI, kg/m2 25.0 ± 3.6 24.0 ± 2.7 24.3 ± 2.9 24.1 ± 3.9 0.246
Duration of diabetes, years 6.8 ± 5.7 8.1 ± 6.7 9.4 ± 6.1 8.5 ± 7.7 0.059
Hypertension, yes 52 (35.6) 29 (50.9) 22 (55.0) 35 (42.7) 0.071
SBP, mmHg 123 ± 14 123 ± 14 124 ± 15 125 ± 14 0.682
DBP, mmHg 75 ± 10 74 ± 9 73 ± 12 75 ± 10 0.713
HbA1c, % 7.1 ± 1.3 7.6 ± 1.6 7.3 ± 1.4 8.0 ± 1.5 <0.001
Total cholesterol, mg/dL 181 ± 38 184 ± 50 170 ± 44 179 ± 42 0.463
LDL cholesterol, mg/dL 101 ± 31 103 ± 44 91 ± 35 97 ± 33 0.356
HDL cholesterol, mg/dL 48 ± 13 48 ± 13 44 ± 11 48 ± 14 0.252
Triglycerides, mg/dL 137 (89–183) 122 (85–188) 128 (93–197) 150 (106–214) 0.321
Serum creatinine, mg/dL 0.86 ± 0.17 0.80 ± 0.16 0.88 ± 0.25 0.97 ± 0.33 0.001
eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2 87.6 ± 16.7 89.0 ± 14.9 84.0 ± 18.1 79.9 ± 23.1 0.027
ACR, mg/g 9.6 (6.0–14.8) 12.3 (6.7–17.2) 40.7 (37.1–74.7) 131.5 (51.1–499.0) <0.001
NAPCR, mg/g 75.1 (57.8–91.9) 143.0 (131.4–173.6) 88.0 (65.6–106.0) 203.8 (151.9–295.2) <0.001
PCR, mg/g 85.7 (67.0–104.9) 153.6 (144.2–190.4) 137.5 (116.5–159.9) 346.9 (213.3–788.4) <0.001
Diabetic retinopathy, n (%) 18 (19.4) 10 (25.0) 14 (51.9) 34 (55.7) <0.001
Lipid-lowering agent, n (%) 86 (58.9) 27 (47.4) 23 (57.5) 49 (59.8) 0.452
RAS inhibitor, n (%) 56 (38.4) 25 (43.9) 25 (62.5) 59 (72.0) <0.001
  1. Data are mean ± standard deviation, medians (interquartile range) for continuous variables and frequencies (percentage) for categorical variables
  2. BMI body mass index, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin, LDL low-density lipoprotein, HDL high-density lipoprotein, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, ACR albumin-to-creatinine ratio, NAPCR nonalbumin protein-to-creatinine ratio