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Table 4 Interview key findings on opinion on diet and diabetes management among participants (n = 21)

From: A qualitative study to explore the perception and behavior of patients towards diabetes management with physical disability

Themes Probe Demographics Responses
Awareness towards diet management   
  In your opinion what are the strategies to control diet? 34/M Malay Amputate leg I have my wife (who does the cooking). I’m living in a standard family (of) more than six adult people and more than three children (we) have to cook a lot and then I will have to cook separately
   67/M Chinese Amputate arm I change everything (diet) because rice is very bad. (I will eat) rice maybe two (to) three time(s) a day (week) only so (instead) I (will take) mee hoon (vermicilli)
  Barriers to controlling diet? 45/M Indian Amputate leg It is not hard to control (our diet but) sometimes we (do not want to) waste (food) so we will finish (up any left overs). Sometimes your wife might be stressed at work and (when you) come back and say ‘What is this (kind of food)!” then it will become a big issue. (Do you) understand?
   35/F Malay Amputate arm If we cook separately) it can affect our relationship (with or families). When I do it like that (insisting on eating healthy food) your (there will be) a rift in your famil(ies) relationship so sometimes we do not follow (our diet) that strictly because dinner time is the only time (for a) family gathering so sometimes we will eat out
  Before you diagnosed (diabetes), have you heard of calorie counting? 35/F Malay Amputate arm I know (about) the calorie count(ing) such as the nutrition (content), cholesterol (and) calories (are all on the food packet) but because we have been used to taking any (food) we like (it is difficult) when I’ve found out that I have this sickness (diabetes) and I have to start controlling this and that but even so I still feel (like I) want to eat the same food. That’s our attitude
   47/M Chinese Amputate arm We do not know (about calories) we just eat whatever we fancy regardless how how much calorie is in the food
Behavior to diabetes medication   
  What type of experiences with diabetes medication usually reduces the people adherence? 56/M Malay Amputate arm (I will) change(my insulin medication) myself. (Although) the doctor has said not to and (if I am) afraid of hypo(glycaemia) I should check (my blood sugar) first, record (my blood sugar levels) and if I continue to be hypo(glycaemic) I should call (the clinic) to reduce (my insulin medication)
   59/F Chinese Amputate arm It is not good (anti-diabetic medication) because it does not cure but instead worsens (diabetes). The medication keeps increase from half (a dose) to one (dose) to two (doses). Meaning it does not cure but worsens (my condition)
  Do you aware of other beliefs (lay beliefs) in people that influence the diabetes management? 46/M Indian Amputate arm In the beginning I was worried (when I) took (insulin). He (my friend) told me that (insulin) is made out of swine. When I knew of it I did not want (to take insulin that is made from swine). What happens when (a by product of) swine enters (my) body? How am I going to bathe?
   45/F Malay Amputate leg Correct there is a lack of (diabetes knowledge among the public). People assume that when he has a chronic disease means that he is waiting to die. We have to change our mentality
  Have you heard of alternative medicines for diabetes? 49/M Malay Amputate leg Pomegranate juice. (when I) ate that I checked that my blood (pressure) reduced a lot
   53/M Indian Amputate leg This (balsam apple) if you take it daily (your blood) sugar (levels) will go down
   39/F Malay Amputate arm Usually you soak ladies finger in the water (overnight) and you drink the water tomorrow morning it will also make the (blood) sugar (levels) go down
   43/F Chinese Amputate arm That “bile of earth” (Andgrographis paniculata) if you take that I can assure (you that) hundred percent your BP (blood pressure) will go down you sugar (will) also go down. In fact I have discussed with my doctor and he agrees. He is a very elderly man (but) he agree(s). But you can only take once week not more than three times (or else) you can not urinate and experience erectile dysfunction