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Table 4 Interview key findings on opinion on diet and diabetes management among participants (n = 21)

From: A qualitative study to explore the perception and behavior of patients towards diabetes management with physical disability

Themes Probe Demographics Responses
Awareness towards diet management   
  In your opinion what are the strategies to control diet? 34/M Malay
Amputate leg
I have my wife (who does the cooking). I’m living in a standard family (of) more than six adult people and more than three children (we) have to cook a lot and then I will have to cook separately
   67/M Chinese
Amputate arm
I change everything (diet) because rice is very bad. (I will eat) rice maybe two (to) three time(s) a day (week) only so (instead) I (will take) mee hoon (vermicilli)
  Barriers to controlling diet? 45/M Indian
Amputate leg
It is not hard to control (our diet but) sometimes we (do not want to) waste (food) so we will finish (up any left overs). Sometimes your wife might be stressed at work and (when you) come back and say ‘What is this (kind of food)!” then it will become a big issue. (Do you) understand?
   35/F Malay
Amputate arm
If we cook separately) it can affect our relationship (with or families). When I do it like that (insisting on eating healthy food) your (there will be) a rift in your famil(ies) relationship so sometimes we do not follow (our diet) that strictly because dinner time is the only time (for a) family gathering so sometimes we will eat out
  Before you diagnosed (diabetes), have you heard of calorie counting? 35/F Malay
Amputate arm
I know (about) the calorie count(ing) such as the nutrition (content), cholesterol (and) calories (are all on the food packet) but because we have been used to taking any (food) we like (it is difficult) when I’ve found out that I have this sickness (diabetes) and I have to start controlling this and that but even so I still feel (like I) want to eat the same food. That’s our attitude
   47/M Chinese
Amputate arm
We do not know (about calories) we just eat whatever we fancy regardless how how much calorie is in the food
Behavior to diabetes medication   
  What type of experiences with diabetes medication usually reduces the people adherence? 56/M Malay
Amputate arm
(I will) change(my insulin medication) myself. (Although) the doctor has said not to and (if I am) afraid of hypo(glycaemia) I should check (my blood sugar) first, record (my blood sugar levels) and if I continue to be hypo(glycaemic) I should call (the clinic) to reduce (my insulin medication)
   59/F Chinese
Amputate arm
It is not good (anti-diabetic medication) because it does not cure but instead worsens (diabetes). The medication keeps increase from half (a dose) to one (dose) to two (doses). Meaning it does not cure but worsens (my condition)
  Do you aware of other beliefs (lay beliefs) in people that influence the diabetes management? 46/M Indian
Amputate arm
In the beginning I was worried (when I) took (insulin). He (my friend) told me that (insulin) is made out of swine. When I knew of it I did not want (to take insulin that is made from swine). What happens when (a by product of) swine enters (my) body? How am I going to bathe?
   45/F Malay
Amputate leg
Correct there is a lack of (diabetes knowledge among the public). People assume that when he has a chronic disease means that he is waiting to die. We have to change our mentality
  Have you heard of alternative medicines for diabetes? 49/M Malay
Amputate leg
Pomegranate juice. (when I) ate that I checked that my blood (pressure) reduced a lot
   53/M Indian
Amputate leg
This (balsam apple) if you take it daily (your blood) sugar (levels) will go down
   39/F Malay
Amputate arm
Usually you soak ladies finger in the water (overnight) and you drink the water tomorrow morning it will also make the (blood) sugar (levels) go down
   43/F Chinese
Amputate arm
That “bile of earth” (Andgrographis paniculata) if you take that I can assure (you that) hundred percent your BP (blood pressure) will go down you sugar (will) also go down. In fact I have discussed with my doctor and he agrees. He is a very elderly man (but) he agree(s). But you can only take once week not more than three times (or else) you can not urinate and experience erectile dysfunction