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Table 3 Results of Cox regression analysis for the effects of risk factors on (A) all-cause and (B) cardiovascular mortality in patients with albuminuria

From: Inpatient screening for albuminuria and retinopathy to predict long-term mortality in type 2 diabetic patients: a retrospective cohort study

  Univariate model Multivariate modela
Crude Model 1 Model 2
HR 95% CI P HR 95% CI P HR 95% CI P
(A) All-cause mortality
 Retinopathy (yes/no) 0.840 (0.599, 1.177) 0.310 0.850 (0.595, 1.213) 0.370 0.672 (0.409, 1.104) 0.117
 Urine albumin to creatinine ratiob 1.167 (0.820, 1.662) 0.390 1.359 (0.950, 1.945) 0.094 1.062 (0.664, 1.699) 0.801
 eGFR (every 15 mL/min/1.73 m2) 0.843 (0.769, 0.924) <0.001     0.760 (0.647, 0.893) <0.001
 Current smoker (yes/no) 1.127 (0.790, 1.606) 0.509     0.890 (0.517, 1.532) 0.675
 Diabetes duration (every 1 year) 1.012 (0.991, 1.033) 0.271     0.996 (0.967, 1.025) 0.781
 BMI (every 1 kg/m2) 0.980 (0.929, 1.033) 0.453     0.981 (0.920, 1.045) 0.551
 Systolic blood pressure (every 10 mmHg) 1.008 (0.906, 1.121) 0.886     0.958 (0.826, 1.110) 0.567
 HbA1c (every 1%) 1.004 (0.939, 1.074) 0.895     1.024 (0.933, 1.122) 0.621
 Total cholesterol (every 1 mmol/L) 0.949 (0.857, 1.050) 0.313     1.073 (0.920, 1.251) 0.368
 Triglycerides (every 1 mmol/L) 0.985 (0.917, 1.058) 0.677     0.987 (0.908, 1.073) 0.762
(B) Cardiovascular mortality
 Retinopathy (yes/no) 1.111 (0.671, 1.840) 0.683 1.074 (0.632, 1.825) 0.793 0.937 (0.433, 2.028) 0.868
 Albumin to creatinine ratiob 1.636 (1.021, 2.623) 0.041 1.839 (1.141, 2.965) 0.012 1.965 (1.035, 3.730) 0.039
 eGFR (every 15 mL/min/1.73 m2) 0.849 (0.745, 0.966) 0.013     0.721 (0.564, 0.921) 0.009
 Current smoker (yes/no) 1.222 (0.745, 2.004) 0.428     1.039 (0.429, 2.518) 0.932
 Diabetes duration (every 1 year) 1.029 (1.000, 1.059) 0.049     1.011 (0.969, 1.055) 0.610
 BMI (every 1 kg/m2) 1.003 (0.931, 1.080) 0.942     1.010 (0.918, 1.110) 0.843
 Systolic BP (every 10 mmHg) 1.041 (0.876, 1.237) 0.645     0.974 (0.776, 1.224) 0.824
 HbA1c (every 1%) 1.021 (0.921, 1.133) 0.689     1.049 (0.908, 1.212) 0.515
 Total cholesterol (every 1 mmol/L) 0.861 (0.693, 1.071) 0.179     0.952 (0.744, 1.219) 0.697
 Triglycerides (every 1 mmol/L) 0.946 (0.748, 1.197) 0.645     1.003 (0.883, 1.139) 0.967
  1. Statistical significance (P < 0.05) is indicated in italics
  2. BMI body mass index, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin, CI confidence interval, HR hazard ratio, BP blood pressure
  3. a After adjusted for age and gender
  4. b Because of the skewed distribution, the albumin to creatinine ratio was logarithm-transformed (log) for the analyses