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Table 1 The clinical data of patients according to the presence or absence of albuminuria and retinopathy

From: Inpatient screening for albuminuria and retinopathy to predict long-term mortality in type 2 diabetic patients: a retrospective cohort study

  Albuminuria(−)/Retinopathy(−) (n = 362) Albuminuria(−)/Retinopathy(+) (n = 192) Albuminuria(+) Retinopathy(−) (n = 69) Albuminuria(+) Retinopathy(+) (n = 138) P
Age (years) 61 ± 15 66 ± 12 68 ± 12 65 ± 11 <0.001
Male, n (%) 224 (61.9%) 98 (51.0%) 37 (53.6%) 70 (50.7%) 0.034
BMI (kg/m2) 24.1 ± 4.1 23.6 ± 4.2 24.4 ± 3.8 24.1 ± 4.0 0.528
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 127 ± 16 130 ± 15 137 ± 16 142 ± 15 <0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 75 ± 11 74 ± 10 77 ± 10 79 ± 10 <0.001
Diabetes duration (years) 6.9 ± 6.7 12.3 ± 7.8 10.5 ± 8.2 12.3 ± 7.3 <0.001
Current smoker, n (%) 109 (30.1%) 48 (25.0%) 21 (30.4%) 35 (25.4%) 0.506
White blood cell count (106/L) 8045 ± 3199 8193 ± 3565 8850 ± 3988 8389 ± 2917 0.412
HbA1c (%) 11.1 ± 3.1 10.3 ± 2.7 10.7 ± 2.9 9.3 ± 2.4 <0.001
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.8 ± 1.5 4.7 ± 1.3 5.0 ± 1.5 5.4 ± 1.8 <0.001
Triglyceride (mmol/L) 2.2 ± 2.8 1.7 ± 1.2 2.1 ± 1.4 2.3 ± 2.6 0.044
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.0 ± 0.3 1.1 ± 0.4 1.0 ± 0.4 1.0 ± 0.4 0.127
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 73 ± 33 68 ± 29 52 ± 28 53 ± 30 <0.001
Albumin to creatinine ratio (mg/g) 54 ± 64 98 ± 83 1226 ± 1285 2825 ± 5043 <0.001
Hypertension, n (%) 246 (68.0%) 145 (75.5%) 57 (82.6%) 125 (90.6%) <0.001
Antihypertensive agents, n (%) 165 (45.6%) 110 (57.3%) 40 (58.0%) 81 (58.7%) 0.009
 ACE inhibitor or ARB, n (%) 110 (30.4%) 68 (35.4%) 25 (36.2%) 61 (44.2%) 0.035
 α-Blocker, n (%) 47 (13.0%) 26 (13.5%) 11 (15.9%) 13 (9.4%) 0.545
 β-Blocker, n (%) 20 (5.5%) 17 (8.9%) 5 (7.2%) 10 (7.2%) 0.520
 Calcium channel blocker, n (%) 66 (18.2%) 51 (26.6%) 27 (39.1%) 39 (28.3%) <0.001
 Diuretics, n (%) 20 (5.5%) 17 (8.9%) 9 (13.0%) 22 (15.9%) 0.002
Oral antihyperglycemic drugs, n (%) 158 (43.6%) 75 (39.1%) 31 (44.9%) 37 (26.8%) 0.005
 Insulin secretagogues, n (%) 139 (38.4%) 64 (33.3%) 29 (42.0%) 34 (24.6%) 0.018
 Metformin, n (%) 84 (23.2%) 48 (25.0%) 16 (23.2%) 20 (14.5%) 0.117
 Thiazolidinediones, n (%) 7 (1.9%) 4 (2.1%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0.242
 α-Glucosidase inhibitor, n (%) 6 (1.7%) 4 (2.1%) 1 (1.4%) 0 (0.0%) 0.443
Insulin therapy, n (%) 224 (61.9%) 99 (51.6%) 35 (50.7%) 42 (30.4%) <0.001
Statins, n (%) 39 (10.8%) 18 (9.4%) 4 (5.8%) 15 (10.9%) 0.616
  1. Statistical significance (P < 0.05) is indicated in italics
  2. ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme, ARB angiotensin II receptor blocker, BMI body mass index, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin, HDL high-density lipoprotein