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Table 4 Variables associated with HBA1c levels (univariate and multivariate analysis)

From: Challenges associated with insulin therapy progression among patients with type 2 diabetes: Latin American MOSAIc study baseline data

  Unadjusted regression Adjusted regression
Estimate 95 % CI p Estimate 95 % CI p value
Age −0.0206 (−0.03, −0.02) <0.0001 −0.0129 (−0.02, −0.01) 0.0001
Gender—female 0.1085 (−0.01, 0.23) 0.0735 0.0589 (−0.07, 0.19) 0.3632
Diabetes duration −0.0054 (−0.01, 0.00) 0.1866 0.0036 (−0.01, 0.01) 0.4219
BMI 0.0114 (−0.00, 0.02) 0.0643 0.0075 (−0.00, 0.02) 0.2243
Number of OAD 0.0631 (−0.00, 0.13) 0.0639 0.0835 (0.01, 0.16) 0.0264
Insulin-mixed only 0.1715 (0.03, 0.31) 0.0143 0.0402 (−0.14, 0.22) 0.6625
 Short acting only 0.4457 (0.11, 0.78) 0.0098 0.3583 (−0.00, 0.72) 0.0506
 Other 0.2045 (0.02, 0.39) 0.0323 0.0892 (−0.11, 0.29) 0.3717
Country group—LA 0.2248 (−0.01, 0.46) 0.0620 0.2129 (−0.05, 0.48) 0.1077
Education level—high school −0.1189 (−0.28, 0.04) 0.1496 −0.1436 (−0.32, 0.03) 0.1010
 College −0.1936 (−0.36, −0.03) 0.0211 −0.2261 (−0.40, −0.06) 0.0101
Insurance status—public −0.2764 (−0.46, −0.09) 0.0037 −0.1834 (−0.38, 0.02) 0.0700
 Private −0.2186 (−0.48, 0.04) 0.0974 −0.1407 (−0.40, 0.12) 0.2788
SC—general diet −0.0758 (−0.12, −0.04) 0.0004 −0.0555 (−0.10, −0.02) 0.0083
 Specific diet −0.0329 (−0.08, 0.01) 0.1451 −0.0368 (−0.08, 0.01) 0.1025
 Exercise −0.0413 (−0.07, −0.01) 0.0035 −0.0266 (−0.06, 0.00) 0.0798
 Blood Glucose testing −0.0658 (−0.09, −0.04) <0.0001 −0.0512 (−0.08, −0.02) 0.0033
IPC-hurried communication 0.1800 (0.08, 0.28) 0.0004 0.1295 (0.02, 0.24) 0.0208
 Elicited concerns 0.0145 (−0.08, 0.11) 0.7506 0.0414 (−0.05, 0.13) 0.3745
 Explained results −0.0424 (−0.15, 0.06) 0.4186 −0.0038 (−0.11, 0.10) 0.9422
 Patient-centered decision 0.0251 (−0.06, 0.11) 0.5659 0.0513 (−0.03, 0.14) 0.2323
 Compassionate/respectful −0.0346 (−0.14, 0.07) 0.5215 −0.0109 (−0.12, 0.10) 0.8461
 Discriminated style −0.0039 (−0.11, 0.11) 0.9434 −0.0818 (−0.19, 0.03) 0.1403
DDS-total distress 0.1682 (0.11, 0.23) <0.0001 0.0660 (−0.00, 0.14) 0.0655
Insulin injection frequency 0.2001 (0.10, 0.30) 0.0002 0.1616 (0.04, 0.28) 0.0088
Adherence (no missed shots) −0.4575 (−0.60, −0.32) <0.0001 −0.1939 (−0.34, −0.05) 0.0104
  1. BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, DDS Diabetes Distress Scale, IPC Interpersonal Process of Care, LA Latin America, OADs oral antidiabetic drugs, SC self-care