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Table 4 Determinants for being at LDL target at baseline (Europe <100 mg/dL, USA <100 mg/dL for no prior CVD and <70 mg/dL for prior CVD group)

From: LEADER 7: cardiovascular risk profiles of US and European participants in the LEADER diabetes trial differ

  No prior CVD group (n = 1013) Prior CVD group (n = 4996)
  Odds ratio 95 % CI P value Odds ratio 95 % CI P value
Region (Europe as reference group) 1.616 1.116; 2.355 0.011 0.248 0.212; 0.290 <0.001
Age (per year) 1.038 1.006; 1.072 0.020 1.012 1.001; 1.023 0.032
Sex (male as reference group) 0.542 0.311; 1.009 0.053 0.535 0.444; 0.644 <0.001
Diabetes duration (per year) 1.011 0.989; 1.035 0.330 1.004 0.995; 1.013 0.358
Race (white as reference group)
 Asian 0.632 0.136; 3.479   1.226 0.664; 2.275  
 Black 0.710 0.371; 1.339 0.633 0.773 0.581; 1.023 0.226
 Other 1.53 0.313; 8.783   0.759 0.389; 1.451  
BMI (18–25, reference group) (kg/m2)
 25–30 0.571 0.239; 1.298   1.029 0.735; 1.438  
 30–35 0.836 0.353; 1.884 0.224 1.083 0.778; 1.503 0.472
 35–40 0.879 0.361;2.049   1.105 0.782; 1.560  
 >40 0.935 0.375; 2.246   1.287 0.891; 1.856  
Statin use (no as reference) 4.669 3.352; 6.550 <0.001 4.276 3.526; 5.202 <0.001
Aspirin use (no as reference) 1.055 0.750; 1.482 0.759 1.369 1.174; 1.597 <0.001
Creatinine, per umol/L 1.007 0.982; 1.038 0.607 0.995 0.991; 1.000 0.034
ACR, per mg/mmol 0.999 0.995; 1.003 0.485 0.999 0.997; 1.000 0.017
eGFR per mL/min/1.73 m2 1.006 0.993; 1.025 0.360 0.994 0.988; 1.000 0.036
  1. Logistic multivariable regression modelling the probability of being at LDL target, adjusted for: age, sex, diabetes duration, race, BMI category, statin use, aspirin use, and renal function (creatinine, ACR, eGFR)
  2. ACR albumin:creatinine ratio, BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, CVD cardiovascular disease, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, LDL low-density lipoprotein
  3. Overall P values relating to the significance of that factor. Stratified by prior CVD status