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Table 1 Clinical and laboratory features of studied individuals according to diabetes duration and BMI status (univariate analysis)

From: Double-diabetes in a real-world sample of 2711 individuals: associated with insulin treatment or part of the heterogeneity of type 1 diabetes?

  Diabetes duration <5 years p Diabetes duration ≥5 years p
Normal Overweight Obesity Normal Overweight Obesity
n 601 176 84   1275 462 113  
Female gender (%) 54.4 56.3 50 NS 55.5 59.3 67.3 0.01*
Age (years) 13.5 (6.6) 13.1 (8.0) 9.8 (6.6) <0.001 24.2 (11.5) 26.3 (12) 25.6 (13.9) 0.003
Diabetes duration (years) 2.32 (1.27) 2.20 (1.27) 2.20 (1.30) NS 12.9 (7.4) 14.1 (8) 13.9 (9.3) NS
Total insulin dose (U) 39.1 (21.8) 38.3 (21.0) 36.6 (23.7) NS 51.7 (21.3) 59.1 (21.2) 60.1 (25.1) <0.001
Insulin dose per body weight (U/kg) 0.90 (0.42) 0.82 (0.32) 0.83 (0.32) NS 0.95 (0.38) 0.88 (0.34) 0.81 (0.34) <0.001
Bolus/total insulin dose ratio (%) 22.6 (14.8) 21 (14.6) 20.8 (13) NS 21.8 (14.7) 23.4 (15.1) 24.3 (15.1) 0.049
Number of insulin doses 4.71 (1.19) 4.66 (1.27) 4.90 (1.23) NS 4.85 (1.20) 5.0 (1.20) 5.36 (1.17) <0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 18.7 (2.66) 21.4 (3.55) 23.4 (5.21) <0.001 21 (2.36) 25.5 (2.49) 29.5 (4.58) <0.001
Body surface area (m2) 1.33 (0.35) 1.36 (0.40) 1.23 (0.45) 0.03 1.57 (0.24) 1.72 (0.23) 1.77 (0.30) <0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 101.6 (13.8) 102.7 (14.5) 103.1 (16.5) NS 113.1 (16.3) 117.7 (17.4) 117.6 (16.7) <0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 65.7 (10.4) 66.8 (11.7) 66.6 (9.7) NS 72.3 (11) 74.4 (11.1) 74.2 (11.7) 0.001
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L)a 9.6 (5.8) 9.6 (5.4) 9.8 (4.9) NS 10.1 (5.8) 10.2 (5.7) 9.9 (6.1) NS
HbA1c (%) 9.2 (2.5) 8.9 (2.2) 8.8 (2.4) NS 9.3 (2.3) 9.3 (2.3) 9.3 (2.3) NS
HbA1c (mmol/mol) 78 (27) 74 (25) 73 (26) NS 78 (25) 78 (25) 78 (25) NS
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)b 4.20 (1.02) 4.18 (0.81) 4.27 (0.87) NS 4.42 (1.05) 4.56 (1.14) 4.59 (1.23) 0.04
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L)b 1.37 (0.37) 1.26 (0.30) 1.24 (0.27) 0.002 1.39 (0.39) 1.39 (0.41) 1.32 (0.34) NS
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L)b 2.43 (0.80) 2.49 (0.66) 2.65 (0.76) NS 2.57 (0.85) 2.69 (0.87) 2.65 (0.86) NS
Non-HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L)b 2.84 (0.97) 2.90 (0.71) 3.08 (0.83) NS 3.02 (0.99) 3.17 (1.10) 3.26 (1.31) NS
Triglycerides (mmol/L)c, d 0.73 [0.52–1.05] 0.80 [0.58–1.04] 0.76 [0.57–1.24] NS 0.85 [0.61–1.14] 0.86 [0.64–1.29] 0.97 [0.68–1.46] 0.003
Familial history of type 2 diabetes (%) 8.4 14.4 10.7 NS 14.3 22.7 24.1 <0.001*
Overt nephropathy (%) 0 0 0 NS 4.8 1.9 2.9 0.04
Coronary events (%) 0 0 0 NS 0.7 0.9 0.9 NS
Number of cardiovascular risk factors 0.90 (0.87) 0.95 (0.93) 1.01 (0.95) NS 0.93 (0.87) 1.28 (0.84) 1.30 (0.78) <0.001
  1. Values are expressed in mean (SD), except where noted
  2. NS not significant
  3. * p for linear-by-linear association (Mantel–Haenszel test)
  4. a multiply by 18.018 to convert to mg/dL
  5. b multiply by 38.61 to convert to mg/dL
  6. c multiply by 88.5 to convert to mg/dL
  7. d median [interquartile range]