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Table 2 Test with a standardized 500 calories mixed breakfast for 5 h: metabolic profile

From: Effects of nateglinide and rosiglitazone on pancreatic alpha- and beta-cells, GLP-1 secretion and inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes: randomized crossover clinical study

Areas under the curve Baseline Nateglinide p Baseline Rosiglitazone p
After 4 months After 4 months
Median (25th–75th) Median (25th–75th) Median (25th–75th) Median (25th–75th)
Glucose (mg/dL × min)
 Total 52,455 (4668–60,140) 40,245 (35,468–48,125) 0.001 47,340 (41,770–57,240) 43,670 37,820–51,550 0.005
 Incremental 11,955 (9251–15,523) 9241 (8004–12,805) 0.005 12,620 (8216–16,070) 11,070 (7595–12,330) 0.035
Insulin (U/mL × min)
 Total 6454 (5561–9922) 9220 (5807–16,340) 0.008 6992 (5023–8584) 6120 4213–7590 0.099
 Incremental 4107 (3277–6917) 6442 (4255–12,038) 0.006 4051 (2566–5324) 3208 2658–4756 0.049
Proinsulin (pM × min)
 Total 15,460 (9841–27,613) 16,020 (10,705–30,395) 0.135 12,470 (10,230–24,500) 11,730 7823–18,830 0.033
 Incremental 8100 (5601–12,305) 9915 (6203–18,713) 0.03 6668 (5505–9680) 6263 4706–9455 0.107
Glucagon (pg/mL × min)
 Total 23,535 (21,070–27,958) 22,160 (19,023–27,795) 0.455 21,460 (16,470–27,140) 24,060 19,500–25,740 0.520
 Incremental 3565 (2739–5480) 3094 (2119–5031) 0.351 3647 (2039–4770) 3268 2344–4302 0.748
GLP1 (pM × min)
 Total 46,995 (36,463–53,685) 48,660 (36,773–56,098) 0.179 42,890 (32,640–56,060) 42,390 37,710–47,390 0.872
 Incremental 4140 (3125–5464) 4454 (2680–6693) 1.000 3840 (2065–6469) 4171 2491–5602 0.687
Triglicerides (mg/dL × min)
 Total 43,500 (30,578–64,283) 46,375 (35,430–61,880) 0.737 42,060 (32,320–54,510) 40,350 30,480–59,240 0.717
 Incremental 9353 (5474–15,643) 11,120 (9132–16,548) 0.218 10,080 (6660–13,170) 9106 3945–10,580 0.044
Free fat acids (mEq/L ×min)
 Total 85.4 (75.6–113.6) 98.0 (81.5–119.1) 0.263 105.9 (79.1–113.3) 70.5 52.7–80.0 0.007
Glucose/insulin ratio
 Total 6.55 (5.27–10.01) 4.37 (2.86–6.62) 0.001 7.32 (5.93–10.61) 6.87 5.62–10.39 0.629
 Incremental 2.57 (1.72–3.98) 1.69 (0.77–2.31) 0.001 2.70 (2.26–5.07) 2.78 1.48–4.45 0.398
Proinsulin/insulin ratio
 Total 2.47 (1.37–3.11) 1.65 (1.37–2.17) 0.028 2.2 (1.64–3.2) 2.06 1.36–2.44 0.107
 Incremental 1.93 (1.21–2.43) 1.51 (1.20–1.82) 0.044 1.84 (1.44–2.40) 1.62 1.37–2.42 0.469
Insulinogenic index
  48.6 (29.1–80.6) 205.7 (80.0–541.1) 0.002 41.8 (26.3–101.9) 65.1 47.8–91.7 0.355
  1. Wilcoxon matched pairs tests were performed to compare the differences for each group before and after the 4 months of therapy
  2. Italic values indicate statistical significance at p < 0.05
  3. GLP-1 glucagon like peptide-1