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Table 1 Baseline and final characteristics of the studied group (n = 101)

From: The impact of long-term changes in metabolic status on cardiovascular biomarkers and microvascular endothelial function in middle-aged men: a 25-year prospective study

  Baseline Follow-up
Age, years 35.3 ± 6.4 59.7 ± 9.0***
Waist circumference, cm 85.1 ± 6.9 93.4 ± 7.9*
BMI, kg/m2 24.3 ± 2.8 25.1 ± 3.2
Body fat,  % 16.1 ± 4.2 20.2 ± 5.8*
Waist circumference ≥102 cm 1 24**
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 120.3 ± 12.9 128.4 ± 12.7*
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 78.1 ± 6.6 79.6 ± 7.7
Blood pressure ≥130/85 mmHg, n 19 42*
Triglycerides, mmol/l 1.27 ± 0.44 1.19 ± 0.44
TG ≥1.7 mmol/l, n 16 15
HDL-C mmol/l 1.30 ± 0.28 1.57 ± 0.28*
HDL-C <1.0 mmol/l 8 6
Fasting plasma glucose, mmol/l 4.52 ± 0.56 4.99 ± 0.46*
Fasting plasma glucose ≥6.1 mmol/l, n 1 12**
Uric acid, µmol/L 0.09 ± 0.01 0.10 ± 0.02
Metabolic syndrome, n 0 9**
TG/HDL ratio 0.98 ± 0.4 0.77 ± 0.3
Current smokers, n 17 5*
Alcohol consumption, units/week 4.71 ± 3.6 5.63 ± 4.3
Leisure-time physical activity, hours/week
 Low/moderate intensity (≤6 METs) 2.9 ± 2.98 3.0 ± 2.66
 High/very high intensity (>6 METs) 4.8 ± 1.9 4.1 ± 1.1
Exercise-related energy expenditure, kcal/week 3101.3 ± 2871.8 2735.3 ± 1872.5
PWC, W/kg 2.41 ± 0.56 1.97 ± 0.49*
  1. Data presented as mean ± SD unless otherwise stated; * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001
  2. BMI body mass index, HDL-C high density lipoproteins, PWC physical working capacity