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Table 2 Clinical characteristics of the participants

From: High-risk alcohol use and anxiety and depression symptoms in adolescents and adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study

Variables Female (n = 102) Male (n = 107) Total (n = 209)
n % n % n %
High-risk alcohol use AUDIT ≥8
Yes 15 14.7 37 34.6 52 24.9
No 87 85.3 70 65.4 157 75.1
Anxiety symptoms HAD-A ≥8
Yes 38 37.2 24 22.4 62 29.7
No 64 62.7 83 77.6 147 70.3
Depression symptoms HAD-D ≥8
Yes 18 17.6 5 4.7 23 11.0
No 84 82.3 102 95.3 186 89.0
Current smoker
Yes 05 04.9 14 13.1 19 9.1
No 97 95.1 93 86.9 190 90.9
Drug use
Yes 04 3.9 21 19.6 25 12.0
No 98 96.1 86 80.4 184 88.0
Time since diagnosis of 1DM
≤5 years 35 34.3 41 38.3 76 36.4
>5 years 67 65.7 66 61.7 133 63.6
Parental alcohol use
Yes 76 74.5 75 70.1 151 72.2
No 26 25.5 32 29.9 58 27.7
HbA1c
Good control 7 6.9 12 11.2 19 9.1
Moderate control 39 38.2 41 38.3 80 38.3
Poor control 56 54.9 54 50.5 110 52.6
  1. AUDIT: Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test; HAD-A: Hospital Anxiety and Depression– anxiety subscale; HAD-D: Hospital Anxiety and Depression– depression subscale.