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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants (urban vs. rural)*

From: Obesity phenotypes in urban and rural Cameroonians: a cross-sectional study

Variables Overall Rural Urban p-value
N 1628 669 959  
Men, n (%) 691 (42.4) 272 (40.7) 419 (43.7) 0.223
Age, years (SD) 41.0 (11.7) 45.9 (13.3) 37.6 (9.1) <0.001
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg (SD) 117 (18) 117 (20) 117 (17) 0.991
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg (SD) 75 (13) 72 (12) 77 (13) <0.001
Body mass index, kg/m2 (SD) 24.5 (4.4) 22.1 (3.1) 26.1 (4.5) <0.001
Waist circumference, cm (SD) 82 (9) 82 (9) 82 (10) 0.050
Waist-to-hip ratio (SD) 0.85 (0.12) 0.81 (0.07) 0.91 (0.15) <0.001
Fasting blood glucose, mmol/L (SD) 4.2 (1.5) 4.2 (1.6) 4.2 (1.4) 0.261
2h glucose, mmol/L (SD) 5.1 (2.0) 5.0 (1.7) 5.3 (2.3) 0.002
Triglycerides, mmol/L (SD) 0.53 (0.31) 0.52 (0.26) 0.54 (0.34) 0.522
Total cholesterol, mmol/L (SD) 3.1 (0.9) 3.6 (0.7) 3.5 (0.9) <0.001
Fasting insulin, U/L [25th-75th percentiles] 3.7 [2.2-6.0] 2.4 [1.4-3.7] 4.8 [3.3-7.1] <0.001
Fasting c-peptide, U/L [25th-75th percentiles] 0.28 [0.19-0.40] 0.23 [0.16-0.34] 0.31 [0.21-0.43] <0.001
Total energy, METs (SD) 3726 (1516) 4087 (1704) 3491 (1316) <0.001
HOMA-IR, Units [25th-75th percentiles] 0.67 [0.39-1.12] 0.42 [0.26-0.68] 0.88 [0.57-1.35] <0.001
Education (secondary or more), n (%) 979 (62.4) 125 (20.2) 854 (89.8) <0.001
Low socio-economic status, n (%) 1057 (65.1) 620 (93.2) 437 (45.6) <0.001
Heavy drinker, n (%) 208 (12.8) 150 (22.6) 58 (6.1) <0.001
Smoking, n (%)     <0.001
Never 1366 (84.1) 579 (86.9) 787 (82.2)  
Ex-smoker 92 (5.7) 14 (2.1) 78 (8.1)  
Current smokers 166 (10.2) 73 (11.0) 93 (9.7)  
Strenuous physical activity, n (%) 747 (45.9) 383 (57.2) 363 (37.8) <0.001
Any Diabetes, n (%) 65 (4.0) 33 (5.0) 32 (3.3) 0.102
Any hypertension, n (%) 130 (8.0) 35 (5.3) 95 (9.9) 0.001
  1. *Values are means and standard deviation (SD), median and 25th-75th percentiles or count and percentages.