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Table 3 Comparison of clinical characteristics according the presence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy

From: Association between Brachial-Ankle pulse wave velocity and cardiac autonomic neuropathy in type 2 diabetes

Variable without CAN (n = 70) with CAN (n = 78) P value
Age(years) 57.6 ± 7.6 61.8 ± 7.4 0.001
Male,n(%) 41(58.6) 39(50.0) 0.296
Current smoker, n (%) 17(24.3) 26(33.3) 0.226
Alcohol consumption, n (%) 15(21.4) 22(28.2) 0.342
Hypertension, n (%) 35(50.0) 46(59.0) 0.273
  Use of β-Blockers 16(22.9) 18(23.1) 0.856
  Use of ACEI/ARB 32(45.7) 35(44.9) 0.746
  Use of CCB 22(31.4) 26(33.3) 0.246
  Other antihypertensives 8(11.4) 6(7.7) 0.168
Duration of diabetes(years)* 6.0(2.0-10.3) 6.0(2.0-11.0) 0.815
BMI(kg/m2) 23.9 ± 3.1 25.0 ± 3.6 0.042
Waist-to-hip ratio* 0.94(0.88-0.99) 0.94(0.90-1.00) 0.849
systolic blood pressure(mmHg) 132.2 ± 16.4 136.0 ± 19.4 0.207
diastolic blood pressure(mmHg) 78.7 ± 11.0 78.0 ± 10.3 0.691
HbA1c(%) 7.9 ± 1.7 8.1 ± 2.0 0.613
fasting glucose(mmol/l)* 7.1(6.0-9.1) 6.7(5.8-9.3) 0.750
Creatinine (μmol/L)* 64.0(52.0-78.0) 59.0(53.0-79.5) 0.519
eGFR( ml/min/1.73 m2) 107.8 ± 25.4 103.0 ± 31.1 0.303
total cholesterol(mmol/l) 4.83 ± 1.92 4.94 ± 1.16 0.709
Triglyceride(mmol/l)* 1.54(0.99-2.69) 1.75(1.10-2.33) 0.510
LDL cholesterol(mmol/l)* 2.84(2.11-3.60) 2.83(2.37-3.60) 0.632
HDL cholesterol(mmol/l)* 1.10(0.92-1.30) 1.09(0.94-1.36) 0.693
ACR(mg/g) 10.90(6.87-24.72) 15.41(7.60-23.67) 0.472
baPWV(cm/sec)* 1584.0(1446.1-1812.63) 1722.0(1493.9-2040.8) 0.011
Diabetic retinopathy, n (%) 10(14.3) 15(19.2) 0.423
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy, n (%) 16(22.9) 30(38.5) 0.041
  NSS score* 3.0(2.0-5.0) 5.0(3.0-6.0) 0.036
  NDS score* 3.0(2.0-4.0) 4.0(2.0-5.0) 0.065
Diabetic nephropathy, n (%) 16(22.9) 17(21.8) 0.877
  1. BMI, body mass index; eGFR, modification of diet in renal disease study-glomerular filtration rate.
  2. Data are means SD, median (25-75%), or number (percent).
  3. *Denotes the variables that were log-transformed when statistics were applied.