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Table 2 Daily intake of nutrients among subjects with type 1 diabetes, stratified by median total fiber intake

From: Fiber intake and inflammation in type 1 diabetes

  < 20 g/d ≥ 20 g/d P
n 54 52  
Energy (kcal/day) 1842.1 ± 558.7 2376.4 ± 628.7 < 0.001†
Energy (kcal/weight)/day 28.6 ± 8.0 33.0 ± 8.4 0.006†
Carbohydrates    
  Crude intake (g) 220.0 ± 66.1 302.1 ± 88.0 < 0.001†
  Weight (g/kg) 3.4 ± 1.0 4.2 ± 1.3 < 0.001†
  Energy (%) 48.4 ± 8.0 51.4 ± 8.6 0.074†
Protein    
Crude intake (g) 82.6 ± 31.5 108.3 ± 35.3 < 0.001†
  Weight (g/kg) 1.3 ± 0.5 1.5 ± 0.4 0.007†
  Energy (%) 18.0 ± 3.7 18.3 ± 3.4 0.616†
Total fat    
  Crude intake (g) 70.0 ± 31.6 82.4 ± 35.3 0.011†
  Weight (g/kg) 1.1 ± 0.4 1.1 ± 0.5 0.394†
  Energy (%) 33.6 ± 8.8 30.7 ± 9.6 0.110†
Saturated fatty acid    
  Crude intake (g) 22.1 ± 10.4 24.5 ± 10.8 0.247†
  Weight (g/kg) 0.3 ± 0.1 0.3 ± 0.1 0.952†
  Energy (%) 10.4 ± 2.7 9.3 ± 3.5 0.059†
Monounsaturated fatty acid    
  Crude intake (g) 24.6 ± 11.6 28.4 ± 12.7 0.107†
  Weight (g/kg) 0.4 ± 0.2 0.4 ± 0.2 0.530†
  Energy (%) 11.7 ± 3.5 10.6 ± 3.4 0.098†
Polyunsaturated fatty acid    
  Crude intake (g) 11.6 (8.3-19.9) 18.4 (10.6-26.0) 0.026§
  Weight (g/kg) 0.2 (0.1-0.3) 0.2 (0.1-0.3) 0.148§
  Energy (%) 6.0 (4.2-10.0) 7.1 (4.6-0.4) 0.733§
Trans fatty acid – crude intake (g) 0.1 (0.0-0.3) 0.1 (0.0-0.4) 0.069§
Cholesterol (mg) 239.9 ± 148.4 239.0 ± 116.3 0.972†
Total fiber (g)    
  Crude intake (g) 14.6 ± 3.5 27.2 ± 6.8 < 0.001†
  Weight (g/kg) 0.2 ± 0.1 0.4 ± 0.1 < 0.001†
Soluble fiber    
  Crude intake (g) 4.3 ± 1.3 7.8 ± 2.1 < 0.001†
  Weight (g/kg) 0.1 ± 0.0 0.1 ± 0.0 < 0.001†
Insoluble    
  Crude intake (g) 10.5 ± 2.8 19.4 ± 5.1 < 0.001†
  Weight (g/kg) 0.2 ± 0.1 0.3 ± 0.1 < 0.001†
Fibers from fruits    
  Total fiber (g) 1.4 (0.2-2.7) 3.0 (1.4-4.9) 0.005§
Fibers from vegetables (A + B)    
  Total fiber (g) 1.1 (0.5-2.5) 2.8 (1.5-4.0) 0.001§
Fibers from Tuberous    
  Total fiber (g) 0.4 (0.0-0.76) 0.2 (0.0-0.8) 0.062§
Fibers from whole-grain foods    
  Total fiber (g) 0.4 (0.0-3.8) 1.1 (0.0-4.5) 0.104§
Fibers from legumes and beans    
  Total fiber (g) 2.5 (0.1-6.7) 8.4 (5.5-12.7) < 0.001§
  1. Data expressed as means ± SD or median (IQR).
  2. † Student’s t test; § Mann–Whitney U test.