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Table 3 Comparison of patients characteristics according to glucometabolic state

From: Mandatory oral glucose tolerance tests identify more diabetics in stable patients with chronic heart failure: a prospective observational study

  NGT n = 11 Prediabetes n = 31 Diabetes n = 14 p
Age (years) 64 ± 17 69 ± 11 70 ± 11 .58
Sex (% male) 91 58 64 .15
BMI (kg/m2) 25.1 ± 3.7 27.6 ± 5.5 29.9 ± 9.7 .39
Aetiology (% IHD) 27 32 57 .22
NYHA class (% I-II-III) 55-36-9 23-48-29 21-57-21 .34
LVEF (%) 43 ± 13 42 ± 12 40 ± 12 .71
E/E’ (n = 5, n = 13, n = 7) 21.4 ± 19.4 21.2 ± 11.0 15.0 ± 8.7 .33
ACE-inhibitor or AIIA (%) 100 74 86 .16
  % optimal daily dosage 73 ± 26 96 ± 32 88 ± 61 .15
Selective β-blocker (%) 73 77 86 .75
  % optimal daily dosage 41 ± 17 52 ± 27 52 ± 25 .56
Non-selective β -blocker (%) 18 13 7 .75
  % optimal daily dosage 150 ± 71 137 ± 75 50 ± 0 .40
Diuretic (%) 64 84 71 .32
  % usual daily dosage 113 ± 67 103 ± 73 129 ± 106 .75
BNP (pg/mL) 167 ± 120 177 ± 207 293 ± 383 .39
HbA1c (%) 5.3 ± 0.2 5.7 ± 0.3 5.9 ± 0.3 .01 *
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 176 ± 39 173 ± 45 169 ± 53 .81
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 43 ± 11 50 ± 15 49 ± 15 .39
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 107 ± 29 93 ± 32 88 ± 42 .25
Triglycerides (mg/dL) 131 ± 35 159 ± 101 160 ± 88 .94
Body weight (kg) 76.5 ± 15.8 76.5 ± 16.5 82.9 ± 30.0 .10
Fat mass (%) 31.1 ± 6.9 35.2 ± 9.1 34.8 ± 9.2 .52
Lean mass (kg) 52.2 ± 9.3 49.3 ± 9.7 52.2 ± 12.4 .62
Fat trunk/fat limb ratio 1.28 ± 0.39 1.39 ± 0.26 1.63 ± 0.35 .03**
Extension strength (Nm/kg)     
  45° 16.8 ± 6.1 13.9 ± 2.9 13.7 ± 5.1 .32
  90° 16.6 ± 3.0 15.4 ± 4.1 15.3 ± 6.4 .58
Flexion strength (Nm/kg)     
  45° 9.0 ± 2.8 8.2 ± 2.2 7.8 ± 3.4 .89
  90° 7.5 ± 2.2 6.7 ± 1.9 6.2 ± 2.4 .60
Self-reported physical activity (METminutes/day) 1921 (533-4313) 1872 (1789-4047) 1219 (664-5686) .73
  1. BMI, body mass index; BNP, B-type natriuretic peptide; IHD, ischaemic heart disease; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; NGT, normal glucose tolerance; NYHA, New York heart association functional class. Extension and flexion strength are expressed as peak torque relative to lean tissue of the right leg. Continuous variables are presented as mean ± SD, physical activity is presented as mean and 95% confidence interval. Categorical variables are presented as number and percentage.
  2. *NGT versus prediabetes and diabetes, **post hoc differences not significant after Bonferroni correction.