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Table 1 Premorbid cardiovascular risk factors, clinical characteristics and medication

From: Immune-inflammatory markers and arterial stiffness indexes in subjects with acute ischemic stroke with and without metabolic syndrome

Variable Stroke pts with metabolic syndrome (n: 130) Stroke pts without metabolic syndrome (n: 127) Controls (n: 109) P
Age (years) 64 (61-72.5) 72 (69-83.5) 69 (63-80) 0.031
M/F (n) 69/61 60/67 54/55 0.027
SBP/DBP (mm/Hg) 152±7.9/98±6.2 147±8.9/92±3.2 141±9.8/91±2.2 <0.001
diabetes (n/%) 63 (48.46) 39 (30% ) 47 (41.28%) 0.263
Hypertension (n/%) 66 (50.79%) 47 (37%) 48 (44.03%) 0.301
Glucose blood levels (mg/dl) 149.3 (97-186) 129.1 (88-142) 102 (81.5-133.5) <0.001
Cholesterol blood levels (mg/dl) 241 (189-270) 222 (179-245) 210 (167-225) <0.001
Triglyceride blood levels (mg/dl) 197.5 (149.75-210.75) 157.5 (119.4-181.75) 167.5 (139.4-192.1) 0.004
White blood cells (per mm³) 9100 (6200-11000) 8200 (7100-10500 7400 (6500-9800) <0.001
Stroke subtype     
  • LAAS 49 (37.69) 52 (40.94)   
  • Lacunar 45 (34.61) 37 (29.7)   
  • CEI 32 (24.61) 35 (27.55)   
  • ODE 3 (2.3) 2 (1.57)   
  • UDE 1 (0.76) 1 (0.78)   
AIx (%) 105 ± 3.5 101 ± 4.1 89 ± 4.6 <0.001
PWV (m/s) 12.9 ± 3.3 11.2 ± 3.2 10.02 ± 2.29 <0.001
SSS 27.12±16.21 29.65±19 30±16.21  
IL-1-beta (pg/ml) 10 (6-11) 8 (5-16) 4 (2-5) <0.001
IL-6 (pg/ml) 12 (9-31) 10.3 (7-29) 8 (3.1-12) <0.001
TNF-α (pg/ml) 35.5 (10.25-46) 26 (10.55-49) 5.1 (1.1-4.3) <0.001
E-selectin (ng/ml) 4.05 (2.0-5.8) 2.1 (1.0-3.8) 2 (1-2) <0.001
P-selectin (ng/ml) 6.5 (3-8.9) 4.5 (2-6.8) 3,1 (2.1-4) 0.004
VICAM-1 (ng/ml) 18 (12.1-23) 16 (10.1-20) 10 (7-15) <0.001
ICAM-1 (ng/ml) 17.8 (12.2-20) 13.5 (12.2-20) 10.9 (12-16.1) <0.001
IL-10 (pg/ml) 2.05 (2-7) 3.15 (2-7) 5 (2-10) 0.031
vWF (ng/ml) 11 (6-15) 4 (3-9) 2 (1-5) 0.0001
PAI-1 (pg/ml) 137 (99.5-155) 23 (11-24) 15 ( 7-22) <0.001
TPA (pg/ml) 21 (10.55-39) 55 (29-88) 11 (8-19) 0.44
CHF (n/%) 23 (17.69) 20 (15.74) 15 (14.70) 0.065
  1. SBP: systolic blood pressure; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; MAP: mean arterial pressure; AIx: augmentation index; PWV: pulse wave velocity; SSS: Scandinavian Stroke Scale score; NIHSS: National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale; Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs); CAD: coronary artery disease; CHF: congestive heart failure; TIA: transitory ischemic attack; LVH: left ventricular hypertrophy; WMHLS: white matter hypertension lesions.
  2. Demographic and history data are expressed as n° (percentage).