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Table 2 Clinical and laboratory characteristics of participants, according to groups of fruit and vegetable consumption (n = 205)

From: Association of fruits and vegetables consumption and related-vitamins with inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in prediabetic individuals

  Servings of fruits & vegetables  
  ≤ 2.49 2.5 to 5 ≥ 5 p for trend
  N = 78 N = 70 N = 55  
Total intake (kcal) 1859 ± 713 1761 ± 610 1755 ± 702 0.59
Body mass index (kg/m2) 31.6 ± 6.0 30.2 ± 5.6 29.9 ± 5.9 0.19
Waist circumference (cm) 103.4 ± 13.6 100.1 ± 12.2 98.2 ± 12.7 0.02
Fat mass (%) 33.9 ± 0.6 32.5 ± 0.8 33.9 ± 0.6 0.65
Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dL) 98.4 ± 10.9 100.2 ± 12.7 99.7 ± 10.7 0.62
HOMA-IR# 2.1 ± 1.9 1.9 ± 1.8 1.9 ± 1.9 0.36
Triglycerides (mg/dL) 157.0 ± 76.1 146.8 ± 61.1 142.1 ± 60.9 0.42
Non-HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 160.1 ± 42.7 155.7 ± 40.4 150.9 ± 41.8 0.43
C-reactive protein# (mg/mL) 0.4 ± 0.1 0.3 ± 0.1 0.3 ± 0.1 0.41
Tumor necrosis factor-α# (pg/mL) 10.9 ± 0.5 11.0 ± 0.7 10.6 ± 1.2 0.86
Adiponectin# (ng/mL) 10.4 ± 1.8 11.9 ± 1.9 13.6 ± 2.0 0.02
Superoxide dismutase# (U/mL) 41.5 ± 1.3 42.6 ± 1.3 46.1 ± 1.6 0.26
Oxidized LDL# (μg/mL) 6.8 ± 0.6 7.5 ± 0.9 9.9 ± 3.9 0.08
  1. Continuous variables are presented as mean values ± standard deviations.
  2. p < 0.05 versus “group ≤ 2.49”, using post hoc Bonferroni test to correct for multiple comparisons.
  3. # Transformed for analysis.