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Table 2 Comparison between groups: pregnancies with adverse outcomes vs. pregnancies without adverse outcomes

From: Predictors for pregnancy outcomes in Romanian women with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: a prospective study

  Without APO With APO p
Number of cases 67 (71.3%) 27 (28.7%) -
Age* 26 [5] 25 [9] 0.212
Diabetes duration* 8 [11] 9 [7] 0.259
HbA1c (%) in the 1st trimester of pregnancy 7.33 ± 0.92 9.02 ± 1.6 <0.001
BMI (kg/m2) in the 1st trimester of pregnancy 23.32 ± 2.88 23.82 ± 4.35 0.586
Daily self-monitoring blood glucose tests* 3 [3] 1 [2] <0.001
Smokers 32.8% (22) 74.1% (20) <0.001
Alcohol abuse 0% (0) 29.6% (8) <0.001
Thyroid disease 13.4% (9) 7.4% (2) 0.503
Diabetic retinopathy 16.4% (11) 40.7% (11) 0.016
Diabetic neuropathy 6.0% (4) 25.9% (7) 0.012
Diabetic nephropathy 1.5% (1) 7.4% (2) 0.037
Planned pregnancy 79.1% (53) 29.6% (8) <0.001
Ketosis in the 1st trimester of pregnancy 10.4% (7) 48.1% (13) <0.001
Preeclampsia events 14.9% (10) 18.5% (5) 0.757
  1. *Distributions are not Gaussian. Data is presented as median and [interquartile range]; p was calculated with Mann-Whitney U test.
  2. Data is presented as mean ± standard deviation; p was calculated with t-student test.
  3. Data is presented as percentages; p was calculated with chi-square test.
  4. Continuous variables distributions were tested for normality using Shapiro-Wilk test and for equality of variances with Levene’s test.
  5. APO – Adverse pregnancy outcome.
  6. HbA1c - Hemoglobin A1c.
  7. BMI – Body Mass Index.