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Table 1 Metabolic Health, Obesity Status, and Subclinical Disease in the study population

From: The prevalence of the metabolically healthy obese phenotype in an aging population and its association with subclinical cardiovascular disease: The Brazilian study on healthy aging

  Overall N = 208 1. Metabolically healthy normal weight (N = 21; 10.1%) 2. Metabolically unhealthy normal weight (N = 43; 20.7%) 3. Metabolically healthy overweight/obese (N = 28; 13.5%) 4. Metabolically unhealthy overweight/obese (N = 116; 55.8%) Overall p-values
Age, yrs (median, IQR) 83 (81,87) 85 (82,87) 83 (81,87) 84 (81,89) 83 (81,87) 0.55
Gender (Female), n (%) 164 (79) 13 (62)c 29 (67)e 24 (86) 98 (84)c,e 0.02
BMI, kg/m2(median, IQR) 26 (23,29) 22 (20,23)b,c 23 (21,24)d,e 26 (24,30)b,d 28 (26,31)c,e 0.000
Current Smokers, n (%) 5 (2) 0 (0) 1 (2) 1 (4) 3 (3) 0.87
Physical Activity Reaches WHO recommendation, n (%) 54 (27) 8 (40) 13 (32) 8 (29) 25 (22) 0.33
Systolic Blood Pressure,mmHg (median, IQR) 142 (132,57) 139 (119,145) 140 (129,165) 136 (131,151) 143 (135,157) 0.12
Diastolic Blood Pressure, mmHg (median, IQR) 73 (67,82) 74 (66,74) 71 (67,80) 73 (67,83) 75 (68,84) 0.72
“At Risk” Blood Pressure, n (%) 129 (62) 11 (52)a,b,c 38 (88)a,e 25 (89)b,f 115 (99)c,e,f 0.000
HbA1C (median, IQR) 6.0 (5.7,6.3) 5.8 (5.6,6.1) 5.8 (5.6,6.3) 5.7 (5.5,6.1) 6.1 (5.8,6.5) 0.02
Fasting Blood Glucose, mg/dL (median, IQR) 95 (89,105) 93 (86,96) 95 (89,107) 91 (85,93) 99 (89,113) 0.03
“At Risk” Fasting Blood Glucose, n (%) 40 (25) 3 (10)a,c 11 (34)a,d 0 (0)d,f 28 (36)c,f 0.000
Total Cholesterol, mg/dL (mean, SD) 198 (41) 220 (36) 190 (40) 207 (29) 196 (44) 0.03
LDL Cholesterol, mg/dL (mean, SD) 114 (36) 132 (33) 108 (37) 117 (23) 112 (38) 0.09
HDL Cholesterol mg/dL (median, IQR) 54 (45,63) 62 (56,70)c 55 (45,63) 60 (54,67)f 49 (42,60)c,f 0.000
“At Risk” HDL, n (%) 65 (31) 0 (0)a,c 14 (33)a,d 0 (0)d 51 (44)c 0.000
Triglycerides, mg/dl(median, IQR) 115 (90,156) 104 (91,119) 105 (88,152) 100 (83,113)f 134 (99,167)f 0.000
“At Risk” Triglycerides, n (%) 123 (59.4) 2 (10)a,c 30 (70)a,d 1 (4)d,f 90 (78)c,f 0.000
Waist Circumference, cm (mean, SD) 94.22 (12.1) 80.4 (7.3)b,c 83.9 (8.5)d,e 95.8 (10.0)b,d 100.1 (9.6)c,e 0.000
“At Risk” Waist Circumference, n (%) 129 (62.3) 0 (0)b,c 0 (0)d,e 23 (82.1)b,d 106 (91.4)e,c 0.000
Framingham Risk Score (median, IQR) 31 (20,48) 27 (21,37) 32 (20,51) 23 (17,35) 34 (21,50) 0.02
hs-CRP mg/dL (median, IQR) 1.9 (1.0,3.4) 1.9 (1.0,3.8) 1.5 (1.0,3.3) 1.8 (1.1,2.6) 2.1(1.0,3.9) 0.51
hs-CRP > 3 mg/dL, n (%) 66 (32) 7 (33) 13 (30) 4 (14) 42 (37) 0.15
Uric Acid, mg/dL (median, IQR) 5.1 (4.4,6.0) 4.9 (3.9,5.5) 5.0 (4.3,5.7) 5.7 (5.5,6.1) 5.3 (4.6,6.4) 0.01
Uric Acid >6 mg/dL, n (%) 52 (25) 3 (14) 7 (16) 4 (14) 38 (33) 0.06
Right CIMT, mm (mean, SD) 0.82 (0.15) 0.94 (0.23) 0.79 (0.12) 0.80 (0.09) 0.81 (.15) 0.14
Left CIMT, mm (mean, SD) 0.86 (0.17) 0.91 (0.18) 0.85 (0.14) 0.87 (0.09) 0.84 (0.20) 0.43
CACS, Agatston (median, IQR) 142 (34,424) 176 (73,698) 70 (11,474) 162 (46,403) 172 (36,392) 0.36
CACS = 0, n (%) 21 (12) 2 (10) 3 (8) 3 (12) 13 (14) 0.68
CACS = 1-100, n (%) 57 (32) 5 (26) 18 (46) 9 (34) 25 (27)  
CACS = 100-400, n (%) 53 (30) 6 (32) 8 (20) 7 (27) 32 (34)  
CACS ≥ 400, n (%) 46 (26) 6 (32) 10 (26) 7 (27) 23 (25)  
  1. a = p < 0.05 between groups 1 and 2; b = p < 0.05 between groups 1 and 3; c = p < 0.05 between groups 1 and 4; d = p < 0.05 between groups 2 and 3; e = p < 0.05 between groups 2 and 4; f = p < 0.05 between groups 3 and 4.
  2. BMI = body mass index; WHO = world health organization; HbA1C = glycated hemoglobin; CACS = coronary artery calcium score; CIMT = carotid intima media thickness; hs-CRP = high sensitivity c-reactive protein.