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Table 3 Students’ response to the MetS questionnaire by gender – fair level of knowledge – (percentage of students answered correctly between 51-81%)

From: Assessment of college students’ awareness and knowledge about conditions relevant to metabolic syndrome

Conditions Question Correct answer Males (N = 69) Females (N = 171) Total (N = 240) P Value
    n % n % n %  
Diabetes Hereditary factors play a major role in the development of diabetes. True 54 78.3 138 80.7 192 80.0 0.722
  An increased alertness is a frequent symptom of diabetes. False 47 68.2 141 82.5 188 78.3 0.310
  Hereditary factors play only a minor role in the development of diabetes. False 43 62.3 112 65.5 155 64.6 0.657
  For some individuals with diabetes it is not advisable to take insulin. True 57 82.6 119 69.6 176 73.3 0.052
  Individuals with diabetes may only eat special kinds of sweets for diabetes. False 29 42.0* 104 60.8* 133 55.4 0.010
  With diabetes, sugar cannot enter the cells sufficiently. True 47 69.1 103 60.6 150 63.0 0.237
  Poor appetite is a frequent symptom of diabetes. False 33 47.4 93 54.4 126 52.5 0.393
  With diabetes, too much sugar enters the cells. False 45 65.2 89 52.1 134 55.8 0.084
  Pregnant women have an increased risk of acquiring diabetes. True 47 69.1 134 78.4 181 75.7 0.136
  Frequent urination is a classic symptom of diabetes. True 55 79.7 121 71.2 176 73.6 0.198
  Arteriosclerosis is one of the sequalae of diabetes. True 44 63.8 109 64.1 153 64.0 1.000
Adiposity An excessively fatty, high-caloric is the only factor that determines adiposity. False 43 62.3 105 62.5 148 62.5 1.000
  Adipose individuals have the same risk than non-adipose individuals of suffering a stroke. False 45 65.2 120 71.4 165 69.2 0.355
  Adiposity can be treated surgically. True 45 65.2 128 76.2 173 73.0 0.107
Hypertension Hypertension is associated with heredity. True 54 79.4 138 80.7 192 80.3 0.858
  For the most part, a concrete single reason of why a patient suffers from hypertension can be determined. False 33 48.5 103 60.2 136 56.9 0.067
  Pregnant women are less likely to suffer from hypertension. False 48 70.6* 143 83.6* 191 79.9 0.031
  After medication has lowered hypertension, the medication can usually be discontinued. False 44 64.7 115 67.7 159 66.8 0.761
  Individuals with hypertension are less likely to suffer from arteriosclerosis. False 44 64.7* 134 78.8* 178 74.8 0.031
  Hypertension can be caused by disorders of the thyroid gland. True 54 79.4 133 78.4 187 78.6 1.000
  Hypertension can cause renal damage. True 53 77.9 134 78.8 187 78.6 0.863
  Hypertension can lead to eye disorders. True 49 72.1 119 70.0 168 70.6 0.875
  Hypertension can be caused by cerebral tumors. True 43 63.4 111 65.3 154 64.7 0.766
High serum cholesterol High serum cholesterol is not associated with hereditary factors. False 46 66.7* 133 80.6* 179 76.2 0.028
Arteriosclerosis With arteriosclerosis, arteries become softer. False 42 60.8 109 64.9 151 63.7 0.556
  Arteriosclerosis can be cured completely. False 48 69.6 135 80.4 183 77.2 0.088
  With arteriosclerosis, arteries become less elastic. True 45 65.2* 141 83.9* 186 78.5 0.003
  As a result of arteriosclerosis, blood pressure is likely to decline. False 42 60.9* 129 76.8* 171 72.2 0.017
  As a result of arteriosclerosis, blood pressure is likely to increase. True 53 76.8 136 81.0 189 79.8 0.480
  High blood pressure and arteriosclerosis are not linked with each other. False 51 73.9 135 81.3 186 79.2 0.212
  The risk of suffering from arteriosclerosis is not hereditary. False 41 59.4* 125 74.9* 166 70.3 0.028
  Arteriosclerosis can cause renal damage. True 53 76.8 124 74.7 177 75.4 0.869
  With arteriosclerosis, blood platelets accumulate on the arterial walls. True 54 78.3 117 70.5 171 72.8 0.261
  With arteriosclerosis, fat accumulates on the arterial walls. True 45 75.2* 133 79.6* 178 75.4 0.030
  Medication can remove completely sediments from the arteries. False 45 65.2 118 71.1 163 69.4 0.438
  With arteriosclerosis, arteries become brittle. True 50 72.5 109 65.3 159 67.4 0.351
  A stroke is caused by artery obstruction. True 51 73.9 139 83.2 190 80.5 0.107
  The nutrient supply to the brain is not affected by a stroke. False 44 63.8* 142 85.5* 186 79.2 <0.001
  A stroke is characterized by a sudden dysfunction of the heart. False 44 63.8 89 53.3 133 56.4 0.151
  A stroke is caused when overexcited cells produce too much electricity. False 44 63.8 103 61.7 147 62.9 0.883
  Individuals with diabetes are more likely to suffer a stroke. True 47 68.2 122 73.1 169 69.1 0.526
  Smoking is a minor risk factor with respect to a myocardial infarction. False 35 51.5* 109 66.1* 144 61.8 0.031
  The oxygen supply to the heart is not affected by a myocardial infarction. False 45 66.2* 138 83.1* 183 78.2 0.008
  Damage caused by a myocardial infarction is not usually permanent. False 45 66.2* 133 80.6* 178 76.4 0.027
  Diabetes is a predisposing factor for a myocardial infarction. True 42 60.9 122 73.5 164 69.8 0.062
  When suffering a myocardial infarction, pain may radiate into the stomach. True 38 55.1 105 63.3 143 60.9 0.245
  A myocardial infarction can manifest itself through nausea and vomiting. True 42 60.9 94 56.6 136 57.9 0.565
  1. *p < 0.05.