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Table 1 Characteristics of patients included

From: Management of diabetes mellitus and associated cardiovascular risk factors in Brazil – the Brazilian study on the practice of diabetes care

Variables Diabetes
Type 1 (N=375) Type 2 (N=983)
Demographics   
Age – yrs 34 ± 13.2 63 ± 11.3
Female gender 232 (61.9) 535 (55)
Caucasian 246 (65.6) 595 (61.1)
BMI – kg/m2 24 ± 3.7 29 ± 5.3
  25-30 16 (4.3) 255 (26.5)
  30-35 4 (1.1) 119 (12.4)
  >35 12 (3.2) 3 (0.3)
Waist circumference, male, cm 86 ± 11.4 102 ± 12.8
Waist circumference, female, cm 80 ± 11.9 96 ± 13.8
Socioeconomic profile   
University level or higher 201 (53.7) 321 (33.5)
Private health insurance 310 (82.7) 833 (85.1)
Full/part time employment 263 (70.7) 381 (38.9)
Sick leave if employed* 26 (6.9) 21 (2.1)
Unemployment related to disability 67 (17.8) 364 (37)
Laboratorial measurements   
Fasting plasma glucose – mg/dL 151 ± 81.7 143 ± 57.2
Glycated hemoglobin – % 8.4 ± 1.9 7.5 ± 1.6
Total cholesterol – mg/dL 179 ± 45.2 181 ± 41.6
LDL-cholesterol – mg/dL 102 ± 33.5 102 ± 39.2
HDL-cholesterol – mg/dL 58 ± 41.2 48 ± 22.5
Triglycerides – mg/dL 103 ±74.9 157 ± 105
Time since diagnosis – yrs 16 ± 10.8 11 ± 8.7
Medications
  Use of glucose-lowering drug 43 (11.5) 827 (84.1)
Metformin 31 (8.3) 270 (27.5)
Sulphonylureas 1 (0.3) 60 (6.1)
Metformin + sulphonylureas 1 (0.3) 309 (31.4)
Others 10 (2.7) 188 (19.1)
  Number of glucose-lowering drugs   
   1 37 (9.9) 379 (38.6)
   2 6 (1.6) 344 (35)
   >2 0 (0) 104 (10.6)
  Insulin 375 (100) 343 (34.8)
  ACEi/ARB 85 (22.7) 582 (59.2)
  Antiplatelet agent 66 (17.6) 465 (47.3)
  Statins 68 (18.1) 478 (48.6)
Hospital admissions* 30 (9.1) 40 (4.5)
Diabetes complications   
Retinopathy 106 (28.3) 204 (20.7)
Neuropathy 65 (17.3) 200 (20.3)
Proteinuria¶ 89 (23.7) 190 (19.3)
Dialysis 16 (4.3) 43 (4.3)
Acute coronary syndrome 7 (1.8) 102 (10.4)
Heart failure 5 (1.3) 50 (5)
Stroke 4 (1) 42 (4.2)
Peripheral vascular disease 14 (3.7) 134 (13.6)
  1. Plus – minus values are means ± standard deviations. Numbers in brackets mean percentage of an absolute number. N number, yrs age in years, BMI body mass index, ACEi angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker.
  2. *: related to the past 3 months of the visit.
  3. ¶: Proteinuria was defined as raised urine protein:creatinine ratio (>200 mg/g) or urine albumin:creatinine ratio (>250 mg/g for men and >355 mg/g for women) or total protein 24-hour excretion (>300 mg/day).