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Table 3 Univariate logistic regression analysis with diabetic retinopathy as a dependent variable in normolabuminuric people with type 2 DM

From: Predictors for diabetic retinopathy in normoalbuminuric people with type 2 diabetes mellitus

  DR
  Odds ratio 95 % CI P value
Age 1.05 1.03 – 1.08 < 0.001
Gender (female) 2.37 1.33 – 4.23 0.003
BMI 0.91 0.83 – 0.99 0.023
Systolic blood pressure 1.02 1.00 – 1.04 0.019
Diastolic blood pressure 1.00 0.98 – 1.03 0.835
Duration of diabetes 1.01 1.01 – 1.02 < 0.001
Serum creatinine 1.16 0.37 – 3.70 0.797
Estimated GFR 0.98 0.97 – 0.99 0.004
Hemoglobin 0.67 0.57 – 0.79 < 0.001
Serum albumin 0.57 0.29 – 1.14 0.573
Serum total cholesterol 0.99 0.99 - 1.00 0.050
Serum triglyceride 1.00 1.00 – 1.00 0.411
Serum HDL 0.98 0.96 – 1.00 0.077
Serum uric acid 1.06 0.88 – 1.28 0.549
Hemoglobin A1c 0.96 0.88 – 1.07 0.418
HOMA-IR 0.98 0.87 – 1.10 0.981
Lipoprotein (a) 1.0 1.0 – 1.0 0.876
hs-CRP 1.01 0.99 – 1.04 0.375
Use of RAS inhibitors 2.79 1.59 – 4.90 < 0.001
Urinary albumin excretion rate tertiles    
 I (< 4.26 μg/min) 1 - -
 II (4.26 -7.21 μg/min) 1.38 0.62 – 3.08 0.433
 III (> 7.21 μg/min) 4.08 1.97 – 8.42 < 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: DR diabetic retinopathy, BMI body mass index, GFR glomerular filtration rate, HDL high-density lipoprotein, HOMA-IR homeostasis model for insulin resistance, hs-CRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, RAS renin-angiotensin system.