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Table 1 Characteristics of participantsa

From: Identifying metabolic syndrome in migrant Asian Indian adults with anthropometric and visceral fat action points

Characteristic Males (n = 82) Females (n = 86)
Number of non-WC MetS risk factorsb Number of non-WC MetS risk factorsb
< 2 (n = 37) ≥ 2 (n = 45) < 2 (n = 57) ≥ 2 (n = 29)
Age (years) 44.1 ± 14.3 46.0 ± 11.8 42.4 ± 13.9 45.8 ± 11.6
Waist circumference (cm) 89.3 ± 7.7 95.6 ± 10.8* 84.0 ± 10.1 88.9 ± 9.1*
Large WC [n (%)]c 19 (51.4) 33 (73.3)* 38 (66.7) 25 (86.2)*
Waist:height ratio 0.53 ± 0.05 0.56 ± 0.07* 0.54 ± 0.07 0.57 ± 0.06*
Waist:hip ratio 0.93 ± 0.06 0.95 ± 0.06 0.83 ± 0.07 0.85 ± 0.08
Conicity index 1.28 ± 0.08 1.31 ± 0.07 1.23 ± 0.09 1.23 ± 0.09
Body mass index (kg/m2) 24.2 ± 2.9 26.3 ± 4.1* 25.3 ± 4.3 28.2 ± 4.8*
Body adiposity index (%) 25.8 ± 3.1 27.5 ± 4.7 33.4 ± 5.2 36.1 ± 6.2*
Suprailiac SFT (mm) 24.6 ± 11.6 31.8 ± 12.3* 28.6 ± 10.6 34.9 ± 10.2*
Thoracic height (cm) 21.6 ± 2.0 22.5 ± 2.8 20.8 ± 2.0 21.7 ± 1.7*
SD, anthropometric (cm) 21.6 ± 1.6 22.7 ± 2.5 20.6 ± 2.7 22.6 ± 2.8*
SD, DXA (cm)d 22.1 ± 2.3 24.0 ± 2.6 19.4 ± 2.5 21.3 ± 2.6*
Abdominal FM (g) 210.3 ± 74.7 280.9 ± 90.2* 241.2 ± 90.0 287.6 ± 87.6*
Visceral FM (g) 118.0 ± 47.3 156.7 ± 45.6* 98.5 ± 37.8 121.6 ± 36.0*
Subcutaneous FM (g) 92.3 ± 42.1 124.2 ± 55.1* 142.6 ± 61.9 166.0 ± 63.1
VATA/SATA ratio 1.15 ± 0.53 1.11 ± 0.37 0.59 ± 0.23 0.64 ± 0.23
Fasting glucose (mmol/L) 5.1 ± 0.4 5.4 ± 0.5* 5.0 ± 0.4 5.4 ± 0.6*
Insulin (pmol/L) 70.3 (43.1–90.4) 78.9 (64.6–110.5)* 64.6 (47.4–86.1) 91.8 (71.8–128.4)*
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 5.2 ± 0.9 5.6 ± 1.0 5.2 ± 1.0 5.5 ± 1.0*
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 3.4 ± 0.9 3.7 ± 1.1 3.2 ± 0.9 3.5 ± 0.9
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.3 ± 0.3 1.0 ± 0.2* 1.4 ± 0.3 1.1 ± 0.3*
Total: HDL cholesterol ratio 4.23 ± 0.91 5.96 ± 1.38* 3.72 ± 0.98 5.14 ± 1.17*
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.0 (0.9–1.3) 2.4 (1.8–2.9)* 1.0 (0.8–1.3) 1.9 (1.4–2.3)*
HOMA2-IR 1.32 (0.82–1.68) 1.53 (1.23–2.07)* 1.21 (0.89–1.52) 1.64 (1.38–2.35)*
HOMA2-%B 105.9 (84.3–130.6) 112.3 (89.5–138.9) 111.6 (80.8–130.5) 130.5 (85.3–166.0)
Systolic BP (mmHg) 114.7 ± 17.4 124.2 ± 18.3* 112.4 ± 20.3 117.6 ± 19.7
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 73.5 ± 8.8 77.9 ± 8.5* 71.1 ± 9.0 75.3 ± 8.7*
Antihypertensive drugs 0 (0) 2 (4.4) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Metabolic syndromee 0 (0) 33 (73.3)* 0 (0) 25 (86.2)*
  1. BP blood pressure; DXA dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; FM fat mass; HDL high-density lipoprotein; HOMA homeostasis model assessment; HOMA2-IR insulin resistance; HOMA2-%B beta cell function; LDL low-density lipoprotein; MetS metabolic syndrome (IDF definition); SATA subcutaneous adipose tissue area (cm2); SD sagittal diameter; SFT skinfold thickness; VATA visceral adipose tissue area (cm2); WC waist circumference
  2. aValues are mean ± standard deviation, median (interquartile range) or sample size (%)
  3. bIDF criteria for MetS other than waist circumference
  4. cIDF MetS criteria: ≥ 90 cm in males, ≥ 80 cm in females
  5. dData available for 57 males and 60 females
  6. eIDF criteria (including waist circumference) for MetS
  7. *P < 0.05 vs. < 2 non-WC MetS risk factors