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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the participants in each group

From: Assessment of sublingual microcirculation for the screening of diabetic nephropathy

  Control (n = 41) DM (n = 45) DM_MC (n = 44)
Age, year 54.88 ± 9.09 55.47 ± 6.22 55.25 ± 8.28
Male sex, no. (%) 22 (53.66) 29 (64.44) 27 (61.36)
Duration of DM, year Na 5.76 ± 4.36 11.45 ± 5.55***
Body-mass index, kg/m2 24.64 ± 2.33 24.05 ± 2.14 24.25 ± 3.76
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 123 ± 10 121 ± 10 122 ± 7
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 75 ± 10 74 ± 10 74 ± 7
Fasting blood glucose, mmol/L 4.82 ± 0.49 8.88 ± 3.38*** 9.63 ± 4.07***
HbA1c, % (mmol/mol) 5.46 ± 0.52 (37) 10.21 ± 2.81 (88)*** 10.48 ± 2.12 (91)***
AST, u/L 26.32 ± 11.86 21.76 ± 8.54 21.85 ± 12.93
ALT, u/L 22.33 ± 14.49 23.84 ± 10.77 23.12 ± 18.94
TC, mmol/L 4.25 ± 0.67 3.84 ± 1.57 3.61 ± 1.63
TG, mmol/L 1.41 ± 0.44 1.94 ± 1.40 1.68 ± 1.07
HDL-c, mmol/L 1.30 ± 0.27 1.07 ± 0.23*** 1.01 ± 0.24***
LDL-c, mmol/L 2.89 ± 0.79 2.93 ± 0.67 2.79 ± 0.72
UACR, mg/g.Cr 13.09 [8.87, 13.73] 8.36 [5.93, 15.42] 185.10 [45.95, 558.1]***###
Crea, umol/L 53.38 ± 9.41 57.72 ± 12.74 61.33 ± 14.74*
BUN, mmol/L 5.69 ± 1.66 5.78 ± 1.27 6.13 ± 1.96
  1. Data are mean ± SD, median with inter-quartile range, or n (%). The body mass index is the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters
  2. SD standard deviation, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin, TC total cholesterol, TG triglycerides, HDL-c high density lipid-cholesterol, LDL-c low density lipid-cholesterol, MC microvascular complications, ALT alanine aminotransferase, AST aspartate aminotransferase, BUN blood urea nitrogen, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate
  3. *P < 0.05, ***P < 0.001 vs. control group; ###P < 0.001 vs. DM group