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Table 3 Association of the biscuit consumption with DR prevalence

From: Biscuit consumption and diabetic retinopathy incidence in adults in the United States

Frequency of biscuit consumption OR (95% CI) P-value
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Never ate Reference Reference Reference
111 times per year 1.988 (1.172, 3.372) 0.011 2.119 (1.241, 3.619) 0.006 2.398 (1.003, 5.734) 0.049
13 times per month 2.140 (1.219, 3.755) 0.008 2.055 (1.159, 3.645) 0.014 2.821 (1.106, 7.191) 0.003
 ≥ 1 times per week 3.092 (1.705, 5.607) < 0.001 2.977 (1.628, 5.443)
< 0.001
3.362 (1.335, 9.884) 0.001
P for trend  < 0.001 0.003 0.020
  1. Model 1: No confounders were adjusted.
  2. Model 2: Adjusted for sex, age and ethnicity.
  3. Model 3: Adjusted for sex, age, ethnicity, education level, marital status, family PIR, smoking and alcohol consumption habits, fasting blood glucose level, hemoglobin A1c level, diagnosis of diabetes, insulin use, blood pressure, BMI, the consumption of 24 foods (soft drinks, ham, popcorn, melons, sushi, pineapple, crackers. bananas, fruit juice, pancakes, hot dogs, cookies, cake, doughnuts, pizza, sweet muffins, cheese, pie, ice cream, beer, French fries, potato chips, chocolate candy, and chili).
  4. Bold values indicate statistical significance.
  5. OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.