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Table 2 Univariable analysis of the effects of covariates on DR

From: Biscuit consumption and diabetic retinopathy incidence in adults in the United States

  n (%) OR(95% CI) P-value P trend
Sex
Male 959 (50.37%) Reference   0.047
Female 945 (49.63%) 0.761 (0.582, 0.996) 0.047
Age
< 50 498 (26.16%) Reference    < 0.001
50–60 418 (21.95%) 1.446 (0.932, 2.242) 0.099
60–70 477 (25.05%) 2.179 (1.459, 3.255)  < 0.001
≥ 70 511 (26.84%) 2.069 (1.389, 3.083)  < 0.001
Ethnicity
Mexican American 275 (14.44%) Reference   0.436
Other Hispanic 38 (2.00%) 1.040 (0.410, 2.641) 0.934
Non-Hispanic white 1154 (60.61%) 0.626 (0.428, 0.915) 0.016
Non-Hispanic black 378 (19.85%) 1.373 (0.907, 2.079) 0.134
Other ethnicities (including multi-racial) 59 (3.10%) 0.747 (0.318, 1.756) 0.503
Education level
Less than 9th grade 207 (10.87%) Reference    < 0.001
9–11th grade (includes 12th grade with no diploma) 278 (14.60%) 0.899 (0.564, 1.434) 0.655
High school grade / General education diploma or equivalent 497 (26.10%) 0.660 (0.427, 1.018) 0.060
Some college or associate of arts degree 508 (26.68%) 0.654 (0.424, 1.009) 0.055
College graduate or above 414 (21.74%) 0.301 (0.178, 0.507)  < 0.001
Marital status
Partnered 1233 (64.83%) Reference   0.986
Single 669 (35.17%) 1.002 (0.758, 1.326) 0.986
Family PIR
< 1.3 401 (21.97%) Reference   0.004
1.3–3.5 725 (39.73%) 0.986 (0.702, 1.386) 0.937
≥ 3.5 699 (38.30%) 0.601 (0.415, 0.870) 0.007
Smoked at least 100 cigarettes in life
Yes 1042 (54.73%) Reference   0.664
No 862 (45.27%) 1.061 (0.812, 1.388) 0.664
Had at least 12 alcohol drinks in one year
Yes 1293 (68.96%) Reference   0.004
No 582 (31.04%) 1.498 (1.134, 1.978) 0.004
Blood fasting glucose level (mmol/l)
 < 6.9 772 (85.12%) Reference    < 0.001
 ≥ 6.9 135 (14.88%) 4.260 (2.802, 6.478)  < 0.001
Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, %)
< 6.5 1654 (88.73%) Reference    < 0.001
≥ 6.5 210 (11.27%) 7.13 (5.17, 9.82)  < 0.001
Diagnosis of diabetes
Yes 257 (13.50%) Reference    < 0.001
No 1600 (84.08%) 0.14 (0.10, 0.19)  < 0.001
Borderline 46 (2.42%) 0.22 (0.09, 0.54)  < 0.001
Insulin use
Yes 77 (4.04%) Reference    < 0.001
No 1827 (95.96%) 0.06 (0.03, 0.09)  < 0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)
< 120 641 (34.37%) Reference    < 0.001
120–140 755 (40.48%) 1.690 (1.186, 2.408) 0.004
≥ 140 469 (25.15%) 2.507 (1.735, 3.623)  < 0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)
 < 80 1434 (76.89%) Reference   0.272
80–90 308 (16.52%) 0.905 (0.615, 1.330) 0.610
 ≥ 90 123 (6.60%) 1.537 (0.944, 2.502) 0.084
BMI (kg/m 2 )
< 18.5 25 (1.32%) Reference   0.014
18.5–25 488 (25.79%) 1.168 (0.267, 5.113) 0.837
25–30 669 (35.36%) 1.950 (0.453, 8.398) 0.370
 ≥ 30 710 (37.53%) 1.907 (0.443, 8.207) 0.386
  1. Boldface indicates statistical significance.
  2. NA, Not applicable. PIR, poverty income ratio; BMI, body mass index; CI, confidence interval.