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Table 1 Descriptive characteristics of the 1904 participants stratified by DR status

From: Biscuit consumption and diabetic retinopathy incidence in adults in the United States

  No DR (n = 1657) Any DR (n = 247) P-value
Sex 0.047
Male 820 (49.49%) 139 (56.28%)
Female 837 (50.51%) 108 (43.72%)
Age (years) 59.70 ± 12.91 63.32 ± 12.39  < 0.001
Ethnicity  < 0.001
Mexican American 233 (14.06%) 42 (17.00%)
Other Hispanic 32 (1.93%) 6 (2.43%)
Non-Hispanic White 1037 (62.58%) 117 (47.37%)
Non-Hispanic Black 303 (18.29%) 75 (30.36%)
Other ethnicities 52 (3.14%) 7 (2.83%)
Education  < 0.001
Lower than 9th grade 168 (10.14%) 39 (15.79%)
9–11th grade (includes 12th grade with no diploma) 230 (13.88%) 48 (19.43%)
High school grade/General education diploma or equivalent 431 (26.01%) 66 (26.72%)
Some college or associate of arts degree 441 (26.61%) 67 (27.13%)
College graduate or above 386 (23.30%) 27 (10.93%)
Not recorded 1 (0.06%) 0 (0.00%)
Marital status 0.861
Partnered 1073 (64.76%) 160 (64.78%)
Single 582 (35.12%) 87 (35.22%)
Not recorded 2 (0.12%) 0 (0.00%)
Family PIR 2.93 ± 1.59 2.52 ± 1.45  < 0.001
Had at least 12 alcohol drinks in one year 0.015
Yes 1144 (69.04%) 149 (60.32%)
No 487 (29.39%) 95 (38.46%)
Not recorded 26 (1.57%) 3 (1.21%)
Smoked at least 100 cigarettes in life 0.663
Yes 910 (54.92%) 132 (53.44%)
No 747 (45.08%) 115 (46.56%)
Fasting blood glucose level (mmol/l) 5.92 ± 1.47 7.22 ± 3.01  < 0.001
Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, %) 5.61 ± 0.77 6.58 ± 1.68  < 0.001
Diagnosis of diabetes  < 0.001
Yes 153 (9.23%) 104 (42.11%)
No 1464 (88.35%) 136 (55.06%)
Borderline 40 (2.41%) 6 (2.43%)
Not recorded 0 (0.00%) 1 (0.40%)
Insulin use  < 0.001
Yes 25 (1.51%) 52 (21.05%)
No 1632 (98.49%) 195 (78.95%)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 128.14 ± 19.51 136.75 ± 23.44  < 0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 70.88 ± 13.74 71.04 ± 14.50 0.867
BMI (kg/m 2) 29.04 ± 6.79 30.36 ± 6.90 0.005
Biscuit consumption frequency  < 0.001
Never ate 234 (14.12%) 17 (6.88%)
1–11 times per year 824 (49.73%) 119 (48.18%)
1–3 times per month 386 (23.30%) 60 (24.29%)
 ≥ 1 times per week 187 (11.29%) 42 (17.00%)
Not recorded 26 (1.57%) 9 (3.64%)
  1. Mean ± SD for continuous variables.
  2. Boldface indicates statistical significance.
  3. PIR, poverty income ratio; BMI, body mass index; DR, diabetic retinopathy.