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Table 1 Characteristics of the subjects according to UAE levels

From: Albuminuria but not low eGFR is closely associated with atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes: an observational study

Variables UAE < 30 mg/24 h (n = 1940) UAE 30–299 mg/24 h (n = 467) UAE ≥ 300 mg/24 h (n = 158) p value p* value
Male (n, %) 1066 (54.9%) 253 (54.2%) 109 (69.0%) 0.002 < 0.001
Age (years) 59 ± 12 61 ± 13 61 ± 12 < 0.001 < 0.001
DD (months)* 72 (17–120) 108 (36–156) 120 (48–180) < 0.001 < 0.001
Hypertension (n, %) 931 (48.0%) 316 (67.7%) 129 (81.6%) < 0.001 < 0.001
Drinking (n, %) 298 (15.4%) 73 (15.6%) 26 (16.5%) 0.930 0.688
Smoking (n, %) 545 (28.1%) 139 (29.8%) 54 (34.2%) 0.233 0.204
APA (n, %) 981 (50.6%) 244 (52.2%) 92 (58.2%) 0.164 0.601
LLD (n, %) 560 (28.9%) 163 (34.9%) 76 (48.1%) < 0.001 < 0.001
AHA (n, %) 824 (42.5%) 307 (65.7%) 129 (81.6%) < 0.001 < 0.001
IIA (n, %) 1333 (68.7%) 367 (78.6%) 146 (92.4%) < 0.001 < 0.001
Metformin (n, %) 1087 (56.0%) 268 (57.4%) 89 (56.3%) 0.868 0.678
Insulin sensitizers (n, %) 264 (13.6%) 95(20.3%) 18(11.4%) 0.001 0.001
SBP (mmHg) 130 ± 16 137 ± 18 149 ± 20 < 0.001 < 0.001
DBP (mmHg) 79 ± 9 82 ± 11 85 ± 11 < 0.001 < 0.001
WC (cm) 88.41 ± 9.88 92.25 ± 11.01 91.76 ± 11.10 < 0.001 < 0.001
WHR 0.91 ± 0.06 0.92 ± 0.07 0.93 ± 0.06 < 0.001 < 0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 24.64 ± 3.33 25.7 ± 3.67 25.54 ± 3.59 < 0.001 < 0.001
FPG (mmol/l)* 7.72 (6.21–9.66) 8.1 (6.42–9.93) 7.56 (5.86–9.59) 0.045 0.006
2-h PPG (mmol/l)* 13.58 (10.24–16.98) 13.79 (10.56–17.18) 12.37 (9.1–16.34) 0.018 0.180
HbA1c (%) 9.11 ± 2.38 9.35 ± 2.27 9.12 ± 2.37 0.150 0.087
FCP (ng/mL)* 1.61 (0.98–2.34) 1.75 (1.04–2.62) 1.87 (1.045–3.01) < 0.001 < 0.001
2-h PCP (ng/mL)* 3.67 (2.07–5.35) 3.51 (2.09–5.35) 3.6 (1.79–5.34) 0.854 0.814
HOMA2-IR* 1.4 (0.9-2) 1.5 (0.9–2.4) 1.6 (0.9–2.5) 0.001 < 0.001
TG (mmol/l)* 1.37 (0.96–2.04) 1.59 (1.14–2.39) 1.66 (1.21–2.49) < 0.001 < 0.001
TC (mmol/l) 4.66 ± 1.04 4.74 ± 1.20 5.52 ± 1.47 < 0.001 < 0.001
HDL-C (mmol/l) 1.13 ± 0.31 1.06 ± 0.28 1.11 ± 0.30 < 0.001 < 0.001
LDL-C (mmol/l) 3.09 ± 0.92 3.09 ± 0.96 3.63 ± 1.21 < 0.001 < 0.001
ALT (U/l) * 19 (13–30) 20 (14–33) 18 (12–26) 0.049 0.103
SUA (µmol/l) * 302 (251–364) 320 (262–391) 378 (304–450) < 0.001 < 0.001
  1. Values are expressed as the mean ± S.D, or median with interquartile range, or percentages
  2. UAE urinary albumin excretion, DD duration of diabetes, APA anti-platelet agents, LLD lipid-lowering drugs, AHA anti-hypertensive agents, IIA insulin or insulin analogue, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, WC waist circumference, WHR waist-to-hip ratio, BMI body mass index, FPG fasting plasma glucose, 2-h PPG 2-h postprandial plasma glucose, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin A1c, FCP fasting C-peptide, 2-h PCP 2-h postprandial C-peptide, HOMA2-IR HOMA of insulin resistance, TG total triglycerides TC total cholesterol, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, ALT alanine transaminase, SUA serum uric acid
  3. p value: The p-values were not adjusted for age and sex for the trend
  4. p* value: The p-values were adjusted for sex and age for the trend
  5. * The Kruskal-Wallis test was applied